Recent studies have shown that the glucagon receptor (GCGR) plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Both pigs and humans exhibit significantly similar behaviors in their glucose and lipid metabolism. In this study, the obtained Bama minipig GCGR coding sequence was 1437 bp encoding 479 amino acids (AA), which demonstrated higher sequence homology with humans than other species. It showed the highest expression profile in the liver, followed by the lung and kidney. In addition, the three-dimensional structure analysis showed that the porcine GCGR protein also had a classic sevenfold transmembrane region and a stalk region at the N-terminus for ligand binding. The stalk region of GCGR possessed five AA variations. The ligand binding pocket of GCGR has one AA variation in the key region, none of which affected the glucagon binding verified by the crystal structure mutagenesis in humans. There was no variation found in the region of membrane anchoring, hydrophobic bond, salt bridge, and hydrogen bond. However, the Gly40Ser mutation in mice resulted in major diseases, meaning that pigs are more suitable for the evaluation of GCGR-related drugs than mice.
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