Lavkulich, L. M. and Arocena, J. M. 2011. Luvisols of Canada: Genesis, distribution, and classification. Can. J. Soil Sci. 91: 781-806. Luvisols link the soil continuum on the Quaternary landscapes. These soils are developed from parent materials rich in Ca and Mg in a relatively humid climate. An acidic eluvial horizon overlying a phyllosilicate-enriched illuvial Bt horizon is the common horizon sequence in Luvisolic soils. Lessivage or the translocation of clays with minimal chemical alteration is the characteristic soil-forming process and results to the diagnostic Bt horizon with well-developed, oriented clay skins or cutans. These soils commonly form intergrades with Chernozems, Podzols and Vertisols. With time, the eluvial horizons experience increased chemical weathering and further release of sequioxides to form Brunisolic and Podzolic sequences within the eluvial Ae in biseqeual soils. Lessivage significantly influences several ecosystem functions of soils. The high amounts of phyllosilicates in the Bt horizon serve as one of the most active sorption sites in soils for metals and organic materials including soil carbon. Sorption of cations takes place through cation exchange reactions and determines the availability of cations to plant roots as well as in the “colloid facilitated transport” of strongly sorbing metals and organic pollutants. Clays in Bt can be restrictive to water and air movement as well as to root growth and distribution. Agricultural and forestry practices such as tillage can compact the structure of Luvisols and may decrease soil productivity.
Canadian System of Soil Classification
capacite d'échange des cations
cation exchange capacity