Buerki, S., T. Gallaher, T. Booth, G. Brewer, F. Forest, J.T. Pereira & M.W. Callmander (2016). Biogeography and evolution of the screw-pine genus Benstonea Callm & Buerki (Pandanaceae). Candollea 71: 217–229. In English, English abstract.
This study investigates the biogeography, evolution and systematics of Benstonea Callm. & Buerki (Pandanaceae) based on six plastid DNA regions and 54 specimens representing 36 species (60% of species generic diversity). Our maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inferences support the monophyly of Benstonea and its close relationship with the speciose Pandanus Parkinson. Benstonea is subdivided into three clades exhibiting contrasting species diversities. Clades I and II have seven species each, whereas most of the species diversity occurs in clade III with 21 species. None of the sections defined by Stone in Pandanus subgenus Acrostigma (Kurz) B.C. Stone (now Benstonea) are retrieved monophyletic by our analyses. Biogeographical inference supports the origin of Benstonea on the Sunda shelf during the Miocene and shows several subsequent exchanges between Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo. Species in Indochina and the Indian continent originated in Peninsular Malaysia and all belong to clade I. Wallacea was colonized at least twice from Borneo sometimes during the Miocene and no back-dispersals were inferred. The Sunda shelf was colonized once, most likely from Halmahera. Finally, our analyses suggest that the Fijian endemic Benstonea thurstonii (C.H. Wright) Callm. & Buerki dispersed from either Australia or New Guinea during the Pleistocene.