Brassica tournefortii Gouan. (wild turnip, WT) has become a problematic weed in the no-till production systems of the northern grains region of Australia. Experiments were undertaken using different biotypes of B. tournefortii to examine its phenology, emergence and seedbank persistence. Biotypes were obtained from paddocks of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (WT1 and WT9) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) (WT1/17 and WT2/17). Fresh seeds initially had high dormancy rates and persisted for a short period on the surface. Seedbank persistence increased with burial depth, with 39% of seeds remaining for WT1 and 5% for WT9 after 30 months at 2 cm depth. Persistence of buried seeds varied across biotypes; WT1/17 seedlings also emerged in the second growing season from 2 cm depth. Compared with buried seeds, seedlings readily emerged from the surface (in March–June following increased rainfall) within 6 months of planting. Emergence was greatest on the surface and varied between biotypes and tillage systems; the highest rate recorded was ∼14%. Multiple cohorts were produced between February and October. No-till systems produced higher emergence rates than conventional tillage systems. Seedlings of B. tournefortii did not emerge from 5 cm soil depth; therefore, diligent tillage practices without seedbank replenishment could rapidly reduce the presence of this weed. A soil-moisture study revealed that at 25% of water-holding capacity, B. tournefortii tended to produce sufficient seeds for reinfestation in the field. Brassica tournefortii is a cross-pollinated species, and its wider emergence time and capacity to produce enough seeds in a dry environment enable it to become widespread in Australia. Early cohorts (March) tended to have vigorous growth and high reproduction potential. This study found B. tournefortii to be a poor competitor of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), having greater capacity to compete with the slow-growing crop chickpea. Therefore, control of early-season cohorts and use of rotations with a more vigorous crop such as wheat may reduce the seedbank. The information gained in this study will be important in developing better understanding of seed ecology of B. tournefortii for the purpose of developing integrated management strategies.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 71 • No. 3