Spruce planting (Picea abies) in coastal birch forests (Betula pubescens) of northern Norway could influence ground-nesting species such as willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) and black grouse (Tetrao tetrix). Predator-specific predation rates on baited trackboards were therefore studied in 3 successional edge gradients: birch forest adjacent to (1) closed spruce plantations, (2) open spruce plantations, and (3) clearings. We also examined the influence of 2 types of landscape-level variables on predation rates: the distance from sampling location to the nearest roads and buildings and the land use composition within a 1-km radius of the sample. Predation rates were dominated by 2 generalist species: red fox (Vulpes vulpes) (19.2%) and hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix) (7.5%). Predation appears dependent on the successional stage of spruce plantations, with areas near clearings (63.5%) and open spruce plantations (59.8%) experiencing higher predation pressures than closed spruce plantations (45.3%). However, predation rates were highly variable among landscape blocks. Neither landscape nor vegetation variables could explain this block-level variation. We discuss alternative mechanisms that could explain differences between landscape blocks, but further studies are needed to understand the spatial heterogeneity of predators at larger scales.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 15 • No. 2