There has been little research conducted on the effects of native or established predators on populations of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand. This study used field surveys and cage exclusion experiments to examine the relationship between established predators and A. tsugae in the southeastern United States. Predators were collected in very low densities in both years. Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae and Hemerobiidae), and gall gnats (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) represented 81% of the total predators collected in 1998. Cage exclusion experiments revealed no significant predator effects in all three sites in 1997 and 1998. It is unlikely that established predators are exhibiting any significant control on adelgid populations because of the low densities of predators that were encountered at a time when adelgids were abundant. Therefore, controlled releases of non-native predators into these sites should be considered.
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