The biological effects of a commercially available neem seed extract (Neemix. 4.5, 4.5% azadirachtin, AZ) were assessed on the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirklady), a recently introduced insect pest of citrus in the United States and its parasitoid, Lysiphlebus testaceipes. When small citrus seedlings were dipped with the neem extract at 11–180 ppm AZ, 0–8% of nymphs and 0–17.5% of adults survived 7 d after the treatment while 95% of nymphs and 42.5% of adults in the control survived for the same period. The extract drastically reduced longevity of both adults and nymphs, adult fecundity, and molting of nymphs at all tested concentrations. Spraying neem extract (11–180 ppm AZ) onto potted citrus plants in the greenhouse also significantly reduced aphids by 20–100%, while control aphid populations increased by 950% 7 d after treatment. Application of the extract had little impact on the survival of adult parasitoids and developing parasitoids within aphids because parasite emergences were similar between treated and untreated parasitized aphids. These results indicate that neem extract may be compatible with integrated pest management programs in citrus and should be evaluated for field efficacy.
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