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1 April 2002 Effect of Temperature on Development, Survivorship, and Fecundity of Lysiphlebia mirzai (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae), a Parasitoid of Toxoptera citricida (Homoptera: Aphididae)
Ying Hong Liu, James H. Tsai
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Abstract

Development, survivorship, longevity, and reproduction of Lysiphlebia mirzai Shuja-Uddin, a parasitoid of Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), was studied at constant temperatures in the laboratory. Larval development ranged from 8.3 d at 32°C to 20.3 d at 10°C, and pupal development ranged from 3.7 d at 30°C to 15.4 d at 10°C. No adults emerged from mummies at 32°C. Duration of larval development was longer than pupal development. The respective low developmental temperatures and degree-days (DD) were estimated at 3.7°C and 142.7 DD for larval stage, 4.8°C and 94.2 DD for pupal stage, and 6.2°C and 181.2 DD for combined immature stage. The respective optimal temperatures of 30.3, 33.3, and 31.1°C for larval, pupal, and combined immature development were determined from a nonlinear biophysical model. The pupal survivorship was relatively constant within 10–20°C (90–84.5%). The average number of eggs laid per female in the initial 24-h period varied from 106.3 at 25°C to 41.8 at 32°C. The average longevity of L. mirzai adults decreased linearly with increasing temperature. At high (37 and 40°C) and low (5°C) temperature, the average pupal survivorship decreased as treatment time increased. Adult parasitoids failed to emerge from the mummies at 40°C after a 4-h treatment. In addition, the mean longevity of adult parasitoids was enhanced when they were fed with honey and water. The optimal constant temperature range for L. mirzai population growth was 15–25°C. This parasitoid may be more effective in control of brown citrus aphid in cooler months than in summer months.

Ying Hong Liu and James H. Tsai "Effect of Temperature on Development, Survivorship, and Fecundity of Lysiphlebia mirzai (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae), a Parasitoid of Toxoptera citricida (Homoptera: Aphididae)," Environmental Entomology 31(2), 418-424, (1 April 2002). https://doi.org/10.1603/0046-225X-31.2.418
Received: 31 May 2001; Accepted: 1 December 2001; Published: 1 April 2002
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KEYWORDS
biological control
brown citrus aphid
Lysiphlebia mirzai
temperature-dependent development
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