To identify adaptive strategies of gall-inducing cecidomyiids, we studied the life history traits of Pseudasphondylia rokuharensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a univoltine species inducing fruit galls on a deciduous shrub, Viburnum dilatatum. Although univoltine gall midges that are associated with trees or shrubs are usually difficult to rear from immature stages under artificial conditions, we successfully reared P. rokuharensis from first instar to adult. Mature larvae entered diapause in autumn, and the diapause terminated after low temperature treatment (4 mo of incubation at 5°C). The adults emerged within a shorter period of time than those without low temperature treatment. Thus, the diapause provides better synchronization of adult emergence in the spring. Because adults live for only a few days, this synchronization improves the chances of adults finding a mate. This is the first report on the mechanism of larval diapause termination for univoltine and tree- or shrub-associated gall midges. The numbers of days needed for adults to emerge under laboratory conditions after low temperature incubation were significantly different between two different localities. This result might suggest the possible existence of ecoclines in their life history parameters.
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