The effectiveness of two lures for trapping the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, by means of in-hive traps was tested by field trials in apiaries located in Florida, Delaware, and Pennsylvania during 2003–2005. Both lures included a mixture (pollen dough) consisting of bee pollen and commercial pollen substitute formulated with or without glycerol and honey. Before it was used in the traps, the dough was conditioned either by the feeding of adult small hive beetles or by inoculation with the yeast Kodamaea ohmeri (NRRL Y-30722). Traps baited with conditioned dough captured significantly more beetles than unbaited traps, and traps positioned under the bottom board of a hive captured significantly more beetles than traps located at the top of a hive. In fact, baited in-hive bottom board traps nearly eliminated the beetles from colonies at a pollination site in Florida. However, when these honey bee colonies were moved to an apiary, trap catch increased markedly over time, indicating a resurgence of the beetle population produced by immigration of beetles from nearby hives or emerging from the soil. In tests at three Florida apiaries during 2006, yeast-inoculated dough baited bottom board traps captured significantly more beetles than unbaited traps, showing the effectiveness of yeast-inoculated dough as a lure and its potential as a tool in managing the small hive beetle.
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