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1 February 2009 Community Response of Insects Associated with Eastern Hemlock to Imidacloprid and Horticultural Oil Treatments
Carla Dilling, Paris Lambdin, Jerome Grant, Rusty Rhea
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The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, is an invasive species reducing the populations of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis L. Carrière, throughout the eastern United States. Systemic imidacloprid and horticultural oil are the primary chemicals used to control infestations of this invasive pest; however, the impact of these two chemicals on nontarget canopy insects is unknown. This study was initiated in November 2005 to assess the effects of (1) imidacloprid soil drench, (2) imidacloprid soil injection, (3) imidacloprid tree injections, and (4) horticultural oil applications on multiple levels of organization (composition, overall specimen abundance and species richness, guild specimen abundance and species richness, and individual species) within the phytophagous and transient canopy insect community. Community composition differed significantly among treatments based on analysis of similarity. Mean species richness and specimen abundance were significantly reduced by one or more treatments. Soil drench applications significantly reduced species richness for the detritivore and phytophaga guilds. Furthermore, specimen abundance for species in the detritivore, fungivore, phytophaga, scavenger, and transient phytophaga guilds was significantly lower in the soil drench treatment. This trend was consistent in all insect guilds examined, with the exception of the hematophaga guild that was not significantly lower than for species on the control trees. Of the 293 species documented to be associated with eastern hemlocks, 33 species were found to be directly effected by one or more of the chemical treatments.

© 2009 Entomological Society of America
Carla Dilling, Paris Lambdin, Jerome Grant, and Rusty Rhea "Community Response of Insects Associated with Eastern Hemlock to Imidacloprid and Horticultural Oil Treatments," Environmental Entomology 38(1), 53-66, (1 February 2009).
Received: 27 May 2008; Accepted: 1 November 2008; Published: 1 February 2009

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canopy arthropods
eastern hemlock
hemlock woolly adelgid
horticultural oil
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