Analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of volatiles from virgin female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire confirmed the emission of (3Z)-lactone [(3Z)-dodecen-12-olide] but not its geometric isomer, (3E)-lactone [(3E)-dodecen-12-olide]. Gas chromatographic/electroantennographic (GC/EAD) analysis of synthetic (3Z)-lactone, which contained 10% (3E) -lactone, showed a strong response of male and female antennae to both isomers. EAG analysis with 0.01 - to100-µg dosages showed a positive dose response, with females giving significantly higher responses than males. In field experiments with sticky purple prism traps, neither lactone isomer affected catches when combined with ash foliar or cortical volatiles (green leaf volatiles or Phoebe oil, respectively). However, on green prism traps, the (3Z)-lactone significantly increased capture of male A. planipennis when traps were deployed in the canopy. Captures of males on traps with both (3E)-lactone and (3Z)-hexenol or with (3Z)-lactone and (3Z)-hexenol were increased by 45–100%, respectively, compared with traps baited with just (3Z)-hexenol. In olfactometer bioassays, males were significantly attracted to (3E) -lactone, but not the (3Z) -lactone or a 60:40 (3E): (3Z) blend. The combination of either (3E)- or (3Z)-lactone with Phoebe oil was not significantly attractive to males. Males were highly attracted to (3Z)-hexenol and the (3Z)-lactone (3Z)-hexenol combination, providing support for the field trapping results. These data are the first to demonstrate increased attraction with a combination of a pheromone and a green leaf volatile in a Buprestid species.
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Vol. 40 • No. 4