Meta-analysis of 33 studies of developmental timing of Culex pipiens s.l. Linnaeus demonstrates that development rate, or the rate of progression through immature life stadia, is primarily driven by temperature, whereas immature survival is driven by temperature, density, and variability in the environmental conditions. As expected, the linear relationship of temperature and development rate is positive for the larval period as well as development to adult emergence. However, the strength of this association varies significantly. Variation in development rate can be explained using additional environmental factors of intraspecific rearing density, sex, and study methodology. Heterogeneity in development rates even once temperature has been considered emphasizes the need for further research of multiple environmental factors and in changing environments. Immature survival is also significantly impacted by variability in environmental conditions. Development rates vary between subspecies of Cx. pipiens, but these population differences are no longer significant once an environmental factor of temperature is considered. Thus, variability in development rate of these insects appears to be primarily driven by response to certain environmental conditions rather than differences between populations. Broad patterns of phenotypic variation across latitude and 96 yr of empirical estimates were not significant once environmental rearing conditions had been considered.
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Vol. 42 • No. 4