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22 October 2015 Seed Predators, not Herbivores, Exert Natural Selection on Solidago spp. in an Urban Archipelago
R. F. Bode, A. B. Gilbert
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Abstract

The effects of urbanization on biodiversity are well established, as a growing city will reduce the size and diversity of patches of native plants. Recolonization of old patches and discovery of new ones by arthropod herbivores should occur as predicted by island biogeography theory. Although colonization represents an increase in biodiversity, such arrivals may exert new forms of natural selection on plants through herbivory and seed predation. Using a single species of old-field aster (Solidago altissima L.), we found that the level of natural selection by seed predators and herbivores follows patterns of island biogeography, with lower amounts of damage on smaller islands, where there are fewer species, and hypothetically smaller populations of arthropods. We also found that in an urban system, levels of herbivory are far below the tolerance levels of Solidago, and that seed predators are likely to be the only arthropod to cause reduced fitness. The pattern seen also implies that as a patch of Solidago grows through clonal expansion, it will come under higher selective pressure.

© The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com
R. F. Bode and A. B. Gilbert "Seed Predators, not Herbivores, Exert Natural Selection on Solidago spp. in an Urban Archipelago," Environmental Entomology 45(1), 150-154, (22 October 2015). https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvv158
Received: 26 June 2015; Accepted: 8 September 2015; Published: 22 October 2015
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