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3 March 2017 Bacterial Endosymbionts of the Psyllid Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in the Pacific Northwestern United States
W. Rodney Cooper, Stephen F. Garczynski, David R. Horton, Thomas R. Unruh, Elizabeth H. Beers, W. Shearer, Peter, Richard J. Hilton
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Abstract

Insects often have facultative associations with bacterial endosymbionts, which can alter the insects' susceptibility to parasitism, pathogens, plant defenses, and certain classes of insecticides. We collected pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), from pear orchards in Washington and Oregon, and surveyed them for the presence of bacterial endosymbionts. Adult psyllids were collected on multiple dates to allow us to assay specimens of both the summer (summerform) and the overwintering (winterform) morphotypes. Two endosymbionts, Arsenophonus and Phytoplasma pyri, were detected in psyllids of both morphotypes in both states. A separate survey revealed similar associations present in psyllids collected in 1987. Arsenophonus was present in 80-100% of psyllids in all growing regions. A slightly lower proportion of summerform than winterform psyllids harbored the bacterium. Arsenophonus was present in the bacteriomes and developing oocytes of most psyllids, indicating that this endosymbiont is transovarially transmitted. This bacterium was also observed in the salivary glands and midguts of some psyllids. Phytoplasma pyri was present in a greater proportion of pear psylla from orchards near Yakima, WA, than from other regions, and was present in a higher proportion of winterforms than summerforms. We did not detect Wolbachia, Profftella, or Liberibacter europaeus, which are associated with other psyllid pests, including other species of Cacopsylla. Our study is the first to survey North American populations of C. pyricola for endosymbionts, and provides a foundation for further research on how bacterial associations may influence the ecology and management of this pest.

Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
W. Rodney Cooper, Stephen F. Garczynski, David R. Horton, Thomas R. Unruh, Elizabeth H. Beers, W. Shearer, Peter, and Richard J. Hilton "Bacterial Endosymbionts of the Psyllid Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in the Pacific Northwestern United States," Environmental Entomology 46(2), 393-402, (3 March 2017). https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvx031
Received: 28 July 2016; Accepted: 3 January 2017; Published: 3 March 2017
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KEYWORDS
Arsenophonus
Bactericera
pear decline
pear psylla
phytoplasma
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