Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) can be a serious pest associated with cattle facilities. In Denmark, they occur most abundantly at organic farms, where they cannot be controlled by means of insecticides. On traditional farms, where chemical control is widely used, development of resistance is of increasing concern. Therefore, interest in biological control or other alternative methods has been growing during the recent years. In order to understand the complex relationships between a pest and its natural enemies in a variable environment, it is necessary to know how temperature affects the dynamics of the involved species. In this paper, we apply data derived from several existing sources to investigate the influence of temperature on development and survival of eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult stable flies, as well as on the fecundity of adult females. We demonstrate that the same modeling framework (called SANDY), previously applied to lifetable data of the pteromalid pupal parasitoid (Spalangia cameroni Perkins), a biological control agent used against stable flies, can also be used to model S. calcitrans. However, the predicted temperature responses depend on the data sources used to parameterize the model, which is reflected by differences in estimated population growth rates obtained from American and non-American studies. Elasticity analysis shows that growth rates are more sensitive to changes in viability, in particular of adult flies, than in fecundity, which may have implications for the management of stable fly populations.
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Vol. 46 • No. 5