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2 November 2017 Phenology of the Pine Bark Adelgid, Pineus strobi (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in White Pine Forests of Southwestern Virginia
Holly A. Wantuch, Thomas P. Kuhar, Scott M. Salom
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Abstract

The pine bark adelgid, Pineus strobi Hartig (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is a native herbivore of eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L. (Pinales: Pinaceae), in eastern North America. P. strobi does not appear to have any dominant overwintering lifestage in southwest Virginia, as it does in its northern range. Eggs can be found consistently from late March through early December and may be produced sporadically later throughout the winter during warm periods. Two distinct generations were observed in the spring, after which life stage frequencies overlapped. Adult body size varied seasonally and was greatest in the spring. The present study constitutes the first recording of phenological details of the P. strobi in its southern range, informing biological control efforts aimed at closely related invasive pests. The phenological plasticity observed between northern and southern P. strobi populations provides insight into the potential effects of climate on the population dymanics of this and related species.

© The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Holly A. Wantuch, Thomas P. Kuhar, and Scott M. Salom "Phenology of the Pine Bark Adelgid, Pineus strobi (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in White Pine Forests of Southwestern Virginia," Environmental Entomology 46(6), 1195-1201, (2 November 2017). https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvx161
Received: 26 June 2017; Accepted: 8 September 2017; Published: 2 November 2017
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