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23 May 2019 The Survival of Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Over Winter in Western Australia
Touhidur Rahman, Sonya Broughton
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The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most economically important pest insects of fruit crops worldwide. Mediterranean fruit fly can cause up to 100% crop loss in susceptible fruit. In order to formulate best management practices, it is critical to understand how Mediterranean fruit fly overwinters in a given geographical location and bridge the gap between autumn and spring populations. In this study, we evaluated the overwintering potential of Mediterranean fruit fly immature and adult stages in two locations in Perth Hills, Western Australia. We also monitored wild adult Mediterranean fruit fly populations for 2 yr. Adults were present year-round with captures very low in winter to early spring relative to summer and autumn. Field experiments revealed that immature stages in apples (eggs/first instar) and soil (pupae) remained viable in winter, emerging as adults at the onset of warmer weather in spring. In field cages, adults survived 72–110 d, and female laid viable eggs when offered citrus fruit, though only 1–6% eggs survived to emerge as adults. Adults survived longer in field cages when offered live citrus branch. The findings suggest that all Mediterranean fruit fly life stages can survive through mild winter, and surviving adults, eggs in the fruit and/or pupae in the soil are the sources of new population that affect the deciduous fruit crops in Perth. We recommend that Mediterranean fruit fly monitoring is required year-round and control strategies be deployed in spring. Furthermore, we recommend removal of fallen fruit particularly apple and other winter fruit such as citrus.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
Touhidur Rahman and Sonya Broughton "The Survival of Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Over Winter in Western Australia," Environmental Entomology 48(4), 977-987, (23 May 2019).
Received: 22 December 2018; Accepted: 24 April 2019; Published: 23 May 2019

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adult survival
Mediterranean fruit fly
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