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8 January 2020 Artificial Selection to a Nonlethal Cold Stress in Trogoderma variabile Shows Associations With Chronic Cold Stress and Body Size
Alison R. Gerken, Shelby R. Abts, Erin D. Scully, James F. Campbell
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Abstract

Extreme temperature has been used as an alternative to chemical treatments for stored product pests for years. Resistance to heat or cold treatments has not been documented in stored product insects, but repeated use of ineffective treatments could lead to adaptive tolerance. Trogoderma variabile (Dermestidae) is a common pest of stored products, and the larval stage is highly resistant to cold and destructive.We artificially selected populations by inducing chill coma at four different cold temperature treatments: 3 and 5 h at –10°C and 3 and 5 h at 0°C. Recovery time was highly heritable after selection for seven generations for decreased recovery time (cold tolerance) and increased recovery time (cold susceptibility) at all time and temperature combinations.Three replicate populations for each time and temperature combination varied substantially, suggesting different mutations in each population were probably responsible for selected phenotypes. Body size decreased in populations selected for cold susceptibility compared with those selected for cold tolerance and survivorship to long-term cold stress increased in the cold-tolerant populations compared with the susceptible populations. After the cessation of the selection experiment, cold tolerance dissipated within four generations from the populations at –10°C, but was maintained in populations exposed to 0°C. Our results suggest that warehouse beetles can adapt to cold stress quickly, but in the absence of cold stress, the proportion of cold-tolerant/susceptible individuals is quickly reduced, suggesting that some of the mutations responsible for these phenotypes may be associated with fitness costs under normal conditions.

Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2020. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Alison R. Gerken, Shelby R. Abts, Erin D. Scully, and James F. Campbell "Artificial Selection to a Nonlethal Cold Stress in Trogoderma variabile Shows Associations With Chronic Cold Stress and Body Size," Environmental Entomology 49(2), 422-434, (8 January 2020). https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvz162
Received: 27 September 2019; Accepted: 12 December 2019; Published: 8 January 2020
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KEYWORDS
artificial selection
chill-coma recovery
integrated pest management
stored product pest
warehouse beetle
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