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28 May 2020 Temporal Asynchrony of Adult Emergence Between Leucopis argenticollis and Leucopis piniperda (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae), Predators of the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), with Implications for Biological Control
Alex N. Neidermeier, Darrell W. Ross, Nathan P. Havill, Kimberly F. Wallin
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Abstract

Two species of silver fly, Leucopis argenticollis (Zetterstedt) and Leucopis piniperda (Malloch) (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae), from the Pacific Northwest region of North America have been identified as potential biological control agents of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae: Adelges tsugae Annand) in eastern North America.The two predators are collectively synchronized with A. tsugae development.To determine whether adult emergence of the two species of silver fly are also synchronized with one another, we collected adult Leucopis which emerged from A. tsugae-infested western hemlock [Pinaceae: Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.] from four sites in the Pacific Northwest over a 29-d period. Specimens were collected twice daily in the laboratory and identified to species using DNA barcoding. The study found that more adult Leucopis were collected in the evening than the morning. Additionally, the daily emergences of adults over the 29-d sampling period exhibited sinusoidal-like fluctuations of peak abundance of each species, lending evidence to a pattern of temporal partitioning.This pattern could have logistical implications for their use as biological control agents in eastern North America, namely the need to release both species for maximum efficacy in decreasing A. tsugae populations.

Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2020. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Alex N. Neidermeier, Darrell W. Ross, Nathan P. Havill, and Kimberly F. Wallin "Temporal Asynchrony of Adult Emergence Between Leucopis argenticollis and Leucopis piniperda (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae), Predators of the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), with Implications for Biological Control," Environmental Entomology 49(4), 823-828, (28 May 2020). https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvaa049
Received: 24 October 2019; Accepted: 7 April 2020; Published: 28 May 2020
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KEYWORDS
biological control
resource partitioning
temporal partitioning
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