The effects of two possible factors, prevention of pest immigration and enhancement of natural enemies, in suppressing onion thrips, Thrips tabaci L., were estimated in a small-scale experimental system of spring-planted onions intercropped with barley. The population dynamics of the thrips and their potential predatory natural enemies were investigated in four treatments: control (bare ground), insect net barrier, and onion-barley intercropping with or without trimming. We found that intercropping significantly suppressed onion thrips. It is unlikely that this effect was due to the prevention of thrip immigration because they seemed to move over the camouflage and/or physical barriers of the barley and the net barrier surrounding the onions easily. Intercropping with barley significantly increased hoverfly (Syrphidae) larvae numbers on onion leaves, and that of some groups of ground-dwelling predators such as large carnivorous ground beetles (Carabidae), ants (Formicidae), and wolf spiders (Lycosidae). We conclude that the suppression of thrips in this system was associated with the enhancement of hoverfly larvae abundance, mainly Sphaerophoria macrogaster (Thomson) (Syrphidae: Diptera) because they were observed together with thrips on onions and have been reported to predate thrips as well as aphids. Some hoverfly larvae on barley might move to nearby onions to search for new food sources and attack thrips.