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12 April 2023 Oxidative and genotoxic effect of piperazine on Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) hemolymph
Çağrı Alkan, Cihat Çelik, Kemal Büyükgüzel, Ender Büyükgüzel
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Recently, there are many studies suggesting antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic agents as alternative chemicals to insecticides. In this study, the oxidative and genotoxic effect of Piperazine, a clinically important hexahydropyrazine anthelmintic, on Galleria mellonella L. hemolymph tissue by adding artificial diet were investigated. Galleria mellonella larvae were reared until 7th larval stage in artificial diet containing 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 g piperazine per 100 g of diet. Using hemolymph collected from 7th-instar larvae, the amount of lipid peroxidation final product malondialdehyde (MDA), protein oxidation product protein carbonyl (PCO), and detoxification enzymes glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (cyt P450) activity, comet assay were measured. According to the results obtained, when the piperazine high concentrations tested with the control group were compared, statistically significant differences were found in MDA, PCO content, cyt P450, GST activity, and comet assay in the hemolymph of the insect. While MDA content was 0.01 ± 0.0021 nmol/mg protein in the control group, this amount increased approximately 2-fold at the highest concentration (0.0231 ± 0.0050 nmol/mg protein). On the other hand, when the control group and the highest piperazine concentration were compared in the GST and cyt P450 activity, it was determined that there was a statistically significant increase. We obtained similar results in comet assay and micronucleus formation data. This study showed that the tested piperazine concentrations caused significant changes in the detoxification capacity, oxidative stress, and genotoxic markers in the insect's hemolymph tissue.

Graphical Abstract

Çağrı Alkan, Cihat Çelik, Kemal Büyükgüzel, and Ender Büyükgüzel "Oxidative and genotoxic effect of piperazine on Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) hemolymph," Environmental Entomology 52(3), 399-407, (12 April 2023).
Received: 26 January 2023; Accepted: 23 March 2023; Published: 12 April 2023

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DNA damaged
Galleria mellonella
glutathione S-transferase
oxidative stress
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