A new genus Pectinimura Park (Lepidoptera, Lecithoceridae) is described, based on the type species, Pectinimura montiatilis sp. nov. Three additional species, P. crassipalpis, P. batubatuensis, and P. crinalis are described from Thailand or the Philippine Islands. A key to species of the genus is given, with illustrations of wing venation, and the male genitalia and female genitalia when available.
The new genus Pectinimura (Lepidoptera: Lecithoceridae) is established, based upon the type species, Pectinimura montiatilis Park and Byun. Pectinimura contains four species described herein that are distributed in a region from Thailand to the Philippine Islands. The new genus is related to Lecithocera Herrich-Schäffer in the venation of both wings and the structure of the male genitalia. It is considered to be a monophyletic group having a very specialized comb-like plate on the valva of the male genitalia medially. Of these four new species, P. crinalis has some differences in the venation of both wings with the absence of R2 and M2 in the forewing and CuA1 and CuA2 coincident in the hindwing. However, there is no doubt that this species belongs to Pectinimura due to the similar structure of the comb-like plate in the valva of the male genitalia. No host plants are known for these species, however, most species of Lecithoceridae feed on debris and presumably Pectinimura may feed similarly.
Materials and Methods
Descriptions are based on loaned material from the Zoological Museum, Copenhagen, collected by O. Karsholt and his colleagues in Philippines in 1961 and in Thailand in 1984. Along with examination of external characters, all male and female genitalia of the species were dissected and examined. All types are deposited in the Zoological Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark. The color standard for the description of adults was based on “Methuen Handbook of Colour” by Kornerup and Wanscher (1978).
Genus Pectinimura Park, gen. nov
The new genus Pectinimura is closely related to the genus Lecithocera Herrich-Schäffer in the external appearance, wing venation, and male genitalia. It can be separated from the latter by the shape of the labial palpus and male genitalia. Autapomorphies for the genus Pectinimura include the second segment of labial palpus thickened with rough scales or a long scale-tuft dorsally, and the male genitalia with deeply emarginate basal plate of uncus medially dividing into two lateral lobes caudally and the valva with a specialized comb-like plate medially.
Known distribution. Thailand and the Philippine Islands.
Etymology. The generic name is derived from Latin, Pecten (= comb) + murus (= wall).
Key to Species of the Genus Pectinimura Park
1.Forewing with R5 and M2 present, without long hair-pencils on under surface
--Forewing with R5 and M2 absent, with a tuft of hair-pencils in a longitudinal furrow on under surface
2.Second segment of labial palpus brownish, thickened with roughly erect scales above; mid tibia brownish ventrally
--Second segment of labial palpus golden yellow, thickened with fewer rough scales above; mid tibia pale orange ventrally
3.Third segment of labial palpus about 1/2 length of 2nd; 2nd segment with long hair-like scales above; forewing with R3 approximated with R4+5 at base
--Third segment of labial palpus as long as 2nd; 2nd segment with short erect scales above; forewing with R3 separated from R4+5 at base
Diagnosis. Pectinimura montiatilis is very similar to P. crassipalpis by sharing the characteristic comb-like plate in the valva of the male genitalia, but can be externally distinguished from the latter by the 2nd segment of labial palpus more roughly scaled with dark fuscous hair-like scale-tufts dorsally, and 3rd segment shorter, about 1/2 length of 2nd, and R3 in the forewing approximated with R4+5 at base.
Description. Male. Wingspan, 15.0-16.0 mm. Head mustard brown, with appressed scales dorsally. Scape of antenna slender, brownish above; flagellum orange white, with pale brownish flagellomeres, not ciliate ventrally. Second segment of labial palpus roughly scaled with dark fuscous hair-like scale-tufts above, brownish on outer surface, paler on inner surface; 3rd segment more or less stout, about 1/2 length of 2nd, dark fuscous beyond ventral half. Hind tibia brownish above. Tegula and thorax dark brown. Forewing mustard brown, speckled with dark fuscous scales sparsely throughout; costa slightly expanded anteriorly beyond 2/3; apex round; termen slightly oblique, but not concave or sinuate; fringe mustard brown with paler basal line; R3 approximated with R4+5 at base; R4 and R5 stalked near middle; R5 extending to termen; M1 far from R4+5 at base, nearly parallel to M2; CuA1 and CuA2 stalked at basal 1/5 of CuA1. Hindwing grayish brown; apex more or less acute; fringe concolorous; M3 and CuA1 stalked basally.
Male genitalia (Figs. 6, 6a): Basal plate of uncus deeply incised at middle, with ovate lateral lobes; lateral margin slightly emarginate medially. Valva elongate, with round apex; costa with basal expansion anteriorly at basal one-fourth, angled on anterior corner, deeply concave; comb-like plate arising from middle of ventral margin above and extended to 3/5 length of valva; sacculus sclerotized, crescent-shaped, extending beyond middle of ventral margin; apex round. Juxta subtriangular, about 1/3 length of vinculum. Aedeagus stout, slightly shorter than valva; cornutus weakly sclerotized, spatulate with a small, round subapical process. Seventh sternite convex on caudal margin, with long lateral arms, as long as the length of 8th segment.
Holotype: Male, Philippines, Palawan, Mantalingajan, Pinigisan 600 m, 24 IX 1961, Noona dan Exp. 61-62, gen prep. no. CIS-5448/Park. Paratypes: 6 males, same locality as the holotype, 10, 12 & 13 IX 1961, gen. prep. no. CIS-5455/Park; 3 males, same locality, 19, 23 & 24 IX 1961, gen. prep. No. CIS-5489/Park.
Distribution. Philippine Islands (Palawan).
Etymology. The species name is derived from Latin, montanus, meaning mountain.
Diagnosis. This new species is externally similar to Pectinimura montiatilis, but is differentiated from the latter by the 2nd labial palpus with fewer short scales dorsally, and 3rd segment longer.
Description. Wingspan, 17.0 mm. Head, tegula, and thorax mustard brown. Scape of antenna slender, dark brown above. Second segment of labial palpus thickened, roughly scaled dorsally, brownish yellow on outer surface speckled with dark-brown scales, and orange white on inner surface; 3rd segment nearly as long as 2nd. Hind tibia brownish with dense setae dorsally and ventrally. Forewing mustard brown; a dark fuscous discal spot at upper corner of cell, distinct or inconspicuous; costa nearly straight; apex round; termen slightly oblique, not sinuate; fringe yellowish brown, with narrow pale gray basal line; R3 divergent from R4+5 at base; R4 and R5 stalked near 3/5; R5 extending to or below the wing apex; M1, M2 and M3 near parallel; CuA1 and CuA2 stalked at basal one-fourth. Hindwing grayish brown; apex rather obtuse; Rs and M1 divergent from beyond cell; M3 and CuA1 stalked at basal 2/5; fringe dark brown, with pale orange gray basal line.
Male genitalia (Figs. 7, 7a): Basal plate of uncus deeply emarginate at middle, divided into two triangular lateral lobes, slightly concave on lateral margin. Valva with costa deeply concave medially; comb-like plate arising from middle of ventral margin, extended to about 3/5 length of valva towards termen; sacculus heavily sclerotized, extended to 2/3 of ventral margin; apex round. Juxta subtriangular, about 1/2 length of vinculum; caudal margin slightly concave. Aedeagus stout, slightly shorter than valva; cornutus spatulate, weakly sclerotized, truncate on caudal margin, with a small subapical protrusion; and with a short, broad plate medially and a large patch of spinules internally.
Holotype: Male, Loei, Phu Luang Wildlife Sanc. 8-14 X 1984, 700-900 m (Karsholt, Lamholdt, & Nielsen), gen. prep. no. CIS-4773/Park. Paratype: 1 male, same data as the holotype, gen. prep. no. CIS-5500/Park.
Distribution. Thailand (Loei Province).
Etymology. The species name is derived from Latin, crassus, meaning thick, and referring to abnormally thickened 2nd segment of the labial palpus.
Diagnosis. Pectinimura batubatuensis differs from the 2 preceding species by the normally thickened, golden yellow 2nd segment of labial palpus, with less rough scales above.
Description. Male and female. Wingspan, 15.0-16.0 mm. Head, tegula, and thorax dark brown. Antenna with dark brown scape dorsally; flagellum yellowish white with pale brownish flagellomeres. Second segment of labial palpus somewhat slender, normally thickened, smooth scaled above, golden yellow outer surface, paler on inner surface; 3rd segment slender, slightly shorter than 2nd, dark fuscous ventrally. Mid tibia grayish orange ventrally; hind tibia dark brown on ventral surface. Forewing dark brown; apex obtuse; termen oblique, slightly sinuate; fringe dark brown with pale brownish gray basal line; R3 divergent from R4+5 at base; R4 and R5 stalked before middle; R5 extending to termen; M1 far from R3 at base, nearly parallel to M2; CuA1 and CuA2 stalked at basal 1/5 of CuA1; Hindwing dark brown, with silvery white scales between costa and Sc vein; apex more or less acute; termen oblique; fringe brown; M3 and CuA1 stalked before middle.
Male genitalia (Figs. 8, 8a): Basal plate of uncus roundly convex on caudal margin. Valva slender; costa concave medially, then almost straight; a comb-like plate, nearly extending to costa. Juxta subtriangular, about 1/2 length of vinculum, with nearly straight caudal margin. Aedeagus slender, narrower than width of distal part of valva, with a narrow plate.
Female genitalia (Fig. 10): Eighth sternite weakly sclerotized, slightly emarginate on caudal margin medially. Antrum cup-shaped, about 2/5 length of ductus bursae; ductus bursae narrow; ductus seminalis arising from conjunction of corpus bursae. Corpus bursae ovate; signum elliptical, and denticulate on surface.
Holotype: Male, Philippine, Tawi Tawi, Tarawakan, north of Batu Batu, 16 X 1961, Noona Dan Exp. 61-62, gen. prep. No. CIS-5493/Park. Paratype: 11 males and females, same locality, 13-16 IX 1961, gen. prep. No. CIS-5452/Park (male); -5454/Park (female); 25 males and females, same locality, 22-30 X 1961, gen. prep. no. CIS-5453/Park; 12 males and females, same locality, 7 XI 1961.
Distribution. Philippine Islands (Batu Batu).
Etymology. The species name is derived from the type locality.
Pectinimura crinalis Park and Byun, new species (Figs. 4, 9, 9a, 13)
Diagnosis. Pectinimura crinalis differs from the 3 preceding species by the forewing with R3 and M2 absent, with specialized long hair-pencils in a longitudinal furrow in the cell and cubital pectins on under surface, hindwing with CuA2 absent, and 3rd segment about 2/3 as long as 2nd.
Description. Male. Wingspan, 14.5-15.5 mm. Head yellowish brown, with more or less erect scales laterally. Antenna with slender, yellowish white scape; flagellum yellowish white with pale brown flagellomeres. Second segment less roughly scaled than P. montiatilis or P. crassipalpis, light brown on outer surface, speckled with dark-brown scales; 3rd segment of labial palpus about 2/3 length of 2nd. Mid tibia creamy white on ventral surface; Hind tibia black. Forewing yellowish brown, speckled with dark-fuscous scales; with a tuft of long hair-pencils in a furrow along central line from basal 1/3 to end of cell; with cubital pectin on under surface; R2 absent; R4 and R5 stalked near middle; R5 extending to or below the wing apex; M2 absent; CuA1 and CuA2 stalked near 1/5. Hindwing grayish brown; cell closed with strong cross veins; M2 and M3 close at base; CuA1 and CuA2 absent.
Male genitalia (Figs. 9, 9a): Basal plate of uncus small, with some irregular caudal margin. Valva short, roundly expanded in distal part; costa concave medially; ventral margin emarginate at middle; comb-like plate well-developed. Juxta subtriangular, about 3/5 length of vinculum. Aedeagus slender, narrower than 1/2 width of valva, with 2 subtriangular process preapically and a weakly sclerotized narrow plate before basal half.
Holotype: Male, Philippine, Palawan, Mantalingajan, Pinigisan 600 m, 24 IX 1961, Noona Dan Exp. 61-62, gen prep. no. CIS-5450/Park. Paratypes: 4 males, same locality as the holotype, gen prep. no. CIS-5451/Park; 3 males, same locality, 9-11 IX 1961; same locality, gen. prep. no. CIS-5487/Park; 2 males, same locality, 13 IX 1961, gen. prep. no. CIS-5488/Park.
Distribution. Philippine Islands (Palawan).
Etymology. The species name is derived from Latin, crini, meaning hair.
Remarks. Although this species has different venation than the preceding species, it shares the specialized genital structure of a comb-like plate in the valva, and is considered to be congeneric with them.
Pectinimura Park, n. gen. has a very specialized comb-like plate in the valva of the male genitalia, which is not known in any other genera, and is considered to be an autapomorphic character. The external appearance and the venation of both wings of the species are similar to those of the genus Lecithocera, but R3 in the forewing of these species is not stalked with R4+5. Of the 4 described species, the first 3 new species have similar wing venations, but P. crinalis differs from them in wing venation as noted in the introduction. However, there is no doubt that P. crinalis belongs to Pectinimura due to the similar structure of the male genitalia with a specialized comb-like plate on the valva. Because some infraspecific variations of the venation within certain genera of the family Lecithoceridae were previously noted by Park (1999), emphasizing that the venation can not always be a main reliable character for a genus in the family, with some different opinions from previous workers (Gozmány 1978; Wu 1997).
We are grateful to O. Karsholt, Zoological Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark, for the loan of valuable specimens for this study; M. Thomas, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, FL, and D. Matthews Lott, McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity, Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, FL, for helpful comments of the manuscript, and Eon-Mi Ji, Kangwon National University, Korea, for assistance in the preparation of plates.