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1 June 2013 Icfrealeyrodes Stat. Rev. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) with Description of a New Species from Myanmar
Anil Kumar Dubey, V. V. Ramamurthy
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Icfrealeyrodes Dubey & Sundararaj is removed from its synonymy of Asialeyrodes Corbett and redefined with a generic diagnosis provided. Icfrealeyrodes indica rev. comb. is proposed for A. dubius Martin & Mound. New combinations proposed include: I. maesae (Takahashi) comb. nov. for Pseudaleyrodes maesae Takahashi, and I. radiata (Pushpa & Sundararaj) comb. nov. for A. radiata Pushpa & Sundararaj. Icfrealeyrodes totus Dubey sp. nov. is described from Rihdil Lake of Myanmar along with drawings and microphotographs and represents the first record of the genus Icfrealeyrodes in Myanmar. Puparial characters differentiating Icfrealeyrodes from Asialeyrodes are discussed. A key to puparia of the Icfrealeyrodes species is given.

The genus Icfrealeyrodes Dubey & Sundararaj (2006) was described for a single species, I. indica Dubey & Sundararaj, and was differentiated from Asialeyrodes by the presence of a complete submarginal furrow and the absence of a caudal furrow. Martin & Mound (2007) synonymized Icfrealeyrodes with Asialeyrodes Corbett citing “it is clearly a species of Asialeyrodes.” We understand that they synonymized Icfrealeyrodes with Asialeyrodes because the complete submarginal furrow was present in 2 Asialeyrodes species, A. maesae (Takahashi) (=Pseudaleyrodes maesae) and A. meghalayensis Regu & David. Of these, the puparium of A. maesae lacks the caudal furrow and has a complete submarginal furrow, and differs by these characters from Asialeyrodes. Therefore, it is assignable to Icfrealeyrodes and hence I. maesae (Takahashi) comb. nov. is proposed for P. maesae Takahashi. Examination of holotype of A. meghalayensis Regu & David revealed that the complete submarginal furrow in the original description of this species is an error; the submarginal furrow is incomplete and terminates near the caudal furrow. Examination of paratype of A. radiata Pushpa & Sundararaj revealed that this species belongs to Icfrealeyrodes and hence, I. radiata (Pushpa & Sundararaj) comb. nov. is proposed. The genera Asialeyrodes and Icfrealeyrodes are exclusively known from the Oriental Region, and share characters such as, the submargin demarcated from dorsal disc by a suture, dorsal setae present and tracheal pores indicated. However, puparia of Icfrealeyrodes species have the submarginal furrow converging inwards and intersecting the area posterior to vasiform orifice, and caudal furrow absent. Puparia of Asialeyrodes species have the submarginal furrow diverging towards caudal pore or just terminating near caudal furrow, not intersecting the area posterior to vasiform orifice, and caudal furrow present, often filled with minute tubercles. Puparia of the new species described herein differs from the other species known from Myanmar, A. dorsidemarcata (Singh) by above mentioned generic characters of Icfrealeyrodes. David & Dubey (2012) listed 27 species of whiteflies in 17 genera from Myanmar. The description of this new species adds one more genus and species to the Aleyrodidae fauna of Myanmar.


Puparia of the new species were collected by A. K. Dubey from Rhi-dil Lake, Myanmar. Puparia were mounted using the method described in Dubey & David (2012). The holotype of A. meghalayensis Regu & David and a paratype of A. radiata Pushpa & Sundararaj were examined from the National Pusa Collection, Division of Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), India. The terminology for morphological structures is that of Bink-Moenen (1983), Martin (1985), and Gill (1990). The holotype of new species is deposited in the NPC, IARI, India. One paratype each will be deposited in the Natural History Museum, London, UK; United States Department of Agriculture, Maryland, USA and Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, India. The measurements and drawings were made using Leica DM 1000 and DM 500 compound microscopes fitted with a drawing tube. Microphotographs were taken using Leica DFC 290 digital camera attached to DM 500.



  • Icfrealeyrodes indica Dubey & Sundararaj (2006): 127, by original designation. [Synonymized with Asialeyrodes by Martin & Mound (2007): 22.)

  • Diagnosis

    Puparia broadly oval; dark brown to black, often with a fringe of wax around margin. Thoracic and caudal tracheal pores indistinct or slightly indicated, often armed with internal teeth. Submargin separated from dorsal disc by a submarginal furrow, converging posteriorly and intersecting area posterior to vasiform orifice. Submargin with a row of setae. First abdominal pair of setae present. Longitudinal and transverse moulting sutures reaching submedian area or extending to the submarginal furrow. Vasiform orifice small, subcordate to nearly triangular, usually located far anterior from submarginal furrow. Caudal furrow absent; if present, restricted to submargin only for a certain distance, not connecting with the posterior margin of vasiform orifice. Ventrally, tracheal folds indicated with stipples. Caudal fold margins slightly visible and may be mistaken for caudal furrow. Spiracles visible.

  • Comments

    The puparia of Icfrealeyrodes are likely to be misidentified as Asialeyrodes due to their extreme similarities unless carefully observed. The puparia of Icfrealeyrodes species do not have a distinct caudal furrow, and the area posterior to vasiform orifice is intersected by the converging submarginal furrows; whereas, the puparia of Asialeyrodes species have a distinct caudal furrow connected with posterior margin of vasiform orifice and is often filled with minute tubercles, and the submarginal furrow usually diverges outwards and terminates near caudal tracheal pore.


    1. Longitudinal and transverse moulting sutures not reaching submarginal furrow; dorsum with granular markings; dorsal disc reticulated with small granules; Taiwan I. maesae (Takahashi) comb. nov.

    —. Longitudinal and transverse moulting sutures reaching submarginal furrow; dorsum without granular markings; dorsal disc not reticulated with small granules 2

    2. Caudal and thoracic tracheal furrows marked with tubercles on submargin only; caudal furrow not reaching at base of vasiform orifice; submargin with long radiating lines; pro-, meso-, and metathorax with submedian pair of setae; India I. radiata (Pushpa & Sundararaj) comb. nov.

    —. Caudal and thoracic tracheal furrows absent, tubercles absent in these areas; submargin with polygonal markings; pro-, meso-, and metathorax without submedian pair of setae 3

    3. A row of tubercles present on submedian area; thoracic tracheal pore regions deeply invaginated; paler area absent along the marginal crenulations; subdorsum with multiple rows of crescent-form papillae; India I. indica Dubey & Sundararaj rev. comb.

    —. A row of tubercles absent on submedian area; thoracic tracheal pore regions continuous with margin; a row of paler area present along the marginal crenulations; subdorsum tassellated with polygonal markings; Myanmar I. totus Dubey sp. nov.


  • Puparium

    Dark brown, with fringe of white wax around margin (Fig. 9); found singly or in group of 4 puparia; found on lower surface of leaves; broadly oval, 1110–1190 µm long, 960–1050 µm wide.

  • Margin

    Crenulate, 9–10 crenulations in 0.1 mm; each crenulation is associated with a yellow area, each paler area longer than wide (Fig. 3), nearly 2 times longer than the marginal crenulations. Thoracic and caudal tracheal pore areas not indicated or indicated by a small opening with a median tooth.

  • Dorsum

    Tessellated, usually square-shaped or rectangular but polygonal forms also present. Submargin completely demarcated from dorsal disc by a submarginal furrow, intersecting caudal area posterior to vasiform orifice. Submarginal furrow slightly invaginated at first abdominal segment area. Submargin with a row of 9 pairs of hair-like setae (3 pairs anterior to transverse moulting suture and 6 pairs posterior to it). Of the 3 pairs on cephalothorax, 1 pair each on laterad of cephalic, pro-, and mesothorax. Of the 6 pairs on abdomen, 1 pair each laterad of abdominal segment I and IV to caudal area. Longitudinal and transverse moulting sutures reaching submarginal furrow, longitudinal moulting suture crenate along median line. The median length of abdominal segment VII slightly smaller (5–10 µm) than VI. Cephalothoracic and abdominal segment sutures visible. Submedian pockets and depressions present on cephalothoracic and abdominal segments. Geminate pores up to 56 pairs, scattered on outer submedian/subdorsal area, a row of geminate pores present each on submargin along the marginal teeth, subdorsum along submarginal suture and submedian area along submedian depressions. Caudal and thoracic tracheal furrows absent. Polygonal tassellations posterior to vasiform orifice smaller than surrounding tassellations, but indistinct on submargin (Fig. 3). The distance between posterior end of the orifice and puparial caudal margin measured 155–157 µm long.

  • Vasiform Orifice

    Subcordate, slightly wider than long, 35–42 µm long, 38–43 µm wide. Operculum similarly shape, completely filling the orifice and obscuring the lingula, 23–25 µm long, 22–28 µm wide. Lingula concealed, setose, with a pair of minute setae at tip.

  • Venter

    Antennae reaching base of prothoracic legs, 55–67 µm long, keel 3–6 µm long. A pair of minute setae present at middle of pro-, meso- and metathoracic legs. Caudal and thoracic tracheal folds without stipples but wavy markings present (Fig. 5). Spiracles visible.

  • Chaetotaxy

    Anterior marginal setae 12–22 µm long and posterior marginal setae 23–31 long. Cephalic setae 70–126 µm long, first abdominal setae 83 µm long; eighth abdominal setae cephalolaterad of vasiform orifice 21–35 µm long, and caudal setae positioned near caudal pore, 13–18 µm long. Submargin with 9 pairs of hair-like setae, 37–62 µm long. Ventral setae 27–30 µm long (15 µm in one puparium), 42–56 µm apart.

  • Types Examined

    HOLOTYPE. Myanmar, Rhi-dil Lake, one puparium on slide, on unidentified plant, 28.iv.2012, A. K. Dubey, NPC (IARI).

    PARATYPES. Eight puparia on 8 slides, data same as of holotype (FRI-1; IARI-4; NHM-1; USDA-1; ZSI-1).

  • Etymology

    The name of new species is derived from a Latin word ‘totus’ that means ‘complete’, it is focusing on the complete submarginal furrow.

  • Remarks

    Puparia of I. totus sp. nov. resemble those of I. indica but differs in having dark brown color, a row of paler area along the marginal crenulations, tessellated dorsum, and by the absence of tubercles on submedian area of abdominal segments. This species differs from I. reticulata by the absence of tubercles in tracheal furrows.


    Takahashi (1934) described Pseudaleyrodes maesae from Taiwan, but was unsure as to which genus to place it and later (Takahashi, 1942) transferred it to Asialeyrodes. Takahashi (1934: 47) stated “caudal furrow absent”; this character and complete submarginal furrow assign this species to Icfrealeyrodes. Asialeyrodes species described in the past 2 decades from the Oriental Region led us to recognize better characters and separate this lineage from Cockerelliella and Icfrealeyrodes (in Cockerelliella, the submarginal furrow demarcates only cephalothorax, and terminates nearly opposite to abdominal segment II, but does not reach the caudal furrow). Pseudaleyrodes maesae is not a member of Asialeyrodes, but rather agrees with characters of Icfrealeyrodes, thus, I. maesae (Takahashi) a new combination is proposed. In addition, I. indica rev. comb. has resulted from revalidation of the genus Icfrealeyrodes. Examination of a paratype of A. radiata revealed that it has a complete submarginal furrow and tuberculate caudal furrow which is restricted to submargin only, and is transferred to Icfrealeyrodes. It may be noted that Asialeyrodes species have caudal furrow connected with posterior ends of the vasiform orifice. A perusal of literature also suggested that A. lushanensis Ko and A. spherica (Sundararaj & Dubey) are not congeners of Asialeyrodes; the latter, A. spherica, differs from Asialeyrodes by the absence of submarginal furrow, and from Rhachisphora by the absence of rhachises. A. lushanensis differs from Asialeyrodes by the absence of the first abdominal setae, and the longitudinal moulting suture reaches submarginal furrow. Further studies are needed on Asialeyrodes species including the less understood morphology of A. dorsidemarcata (Singh).

    Figs. 1–3.

    Icfrealeyrodes totus sp. nov. 1, holotype puparium. 2, cephalothorax, dorsal surface. 3, posterior abdominal area, submarginal furrow and caudal setae. (Digits 1–9 indicating positions of submarginal setae).


    Figs. 4–9.

    Icfrealeyrodes totus sp. nov. 4. holotype puparium. 5, thoracic tracheal fold. 6, thoracic tracheal pore. 7, submarginal paler area along crenulations. 8, posterior abdominal area, submarginal furrow and caudal setae. 9, puparium, habitus.



    This study is supported by Network Project on Insect Biosystematics (21-17) funded by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India.



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    Anil Kumar Dubey and V. V. Ramamurthy "Icfrealeyrodes Stat. Rev. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) with Description of a New Species from Myanmar," Florida Entomologist 96(2), 463-468, (1 June 2013).
    Published: 1 June 2013
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