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1 June 2014 Revision of the Genus Ricanoides (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Ricaniidae) with Descriptions of Three New Species and One New Combination
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Abstract

The genus Ricanoides Zia, 1935 is revised. The genus includes 5 species as follows: R. flabellum Noualhier, 1896 (China: Guizhou, Guangdong, Taiwan; Burma; India), R. liboensis sp. nov. (China: Guizhou), R. melanicus sp. nov. (China: Guizhou), R. pipera (Distant, 1914), comb. nov. (China: Taiwan, Hainan; Japan; India) and R. rotundatus sp. nov. (China: Guizhou, Guangxi). All 5 species (including the above-mentioned 3 new species) are described or redescribed and illustrated. A new combination, R. pipera (Distant, 1914) comb, nov., is proposed (previously placed in the genus Pochazia). A key to all species of this genus is given.

The ricaniid planthopper genus Ricanoides was established by Zia (1935) with Ricania flabellum Noulhier, 1896 from China as its type species. To date, only 1 species was reported in the world. The most recent taxnomic study of this genus was that of Fennah (1956).

In this paper, 5 species of the genus Ricanoides are recognized and illustrated (including 3 new species from China), and a key is given for their identification. In addition, a new combination, Ricanoides pipera (Distant, 1914) comb. nov. is proposed.

Material and Methods

The terminology for the wing venation and genitalia follows Fennah (1969) and Fletcher (2008), and the terminology used for the head, pronotum and mesonotum follows Yang (1989). The color photos of examined specimens were taken by a Keyence VHX-1000C camera. External morphology was observed under an Olympus SZX7 stereoscopic microscope and characters were measured with an ocular micrometer. The genital segments of the examined specimens were macerated in 10% KOH and drawn from preparations in glycerin jelly using an Olympus CX41 stereomicroscope. Illustrations were scanned by Canon CanoScan LiDElOO and imported into Adobe Photoshop CS5 for labeling and plate composition. The type materials and examined materials are deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou Province, China (IEGU). Figures in this report are reproduced in color in the online supplementary material available in Florida Entomologist 97(2) (2014) at  http://purl.fcla.edu/fcla/entomologist/browse.

Descriptive Taxonomy

Genus Ricanoides Zia, 1935
Ricanoides Zia, 1935:538; Fennah, 1956:211.

  • Type species: Ricania flabellum Noulhier, 1896, by original designation.

  • Diagnosis

  • Coloration. General color blackish yellow or greyish brown. Medium size, body length (including forewings) 9–11 mm. Vertex black or black brown with each black macula at both rear angles. Pronotum greyish brown or black with central carina and 2 black macula at both sides of central carina. Forewing with a black spot at apex angle.

  • Head and Thorax. Face with clypeus convex, separated from frons by transverse crevice along frontoclypeal suture; frons short, broad with well-defined median longitudinal carina and arcuate lateral carinae, which is shorter than the central cacrina. Clypeus triangular without central carina. Vertex with very weak central and lateral carina. Pronotum narrow with median carina.

  • Mesonotum large, fan-shaped, convex, with 3 carinae: central carina straight; lateral carinae inwardly and anteriorly curved and bell-like, each bifurcating outwardly near middle in a straight longitudinal carina. Forewing R1 and R2 with short common stem begin from basal cell, costal membrane with a very small pterostigma or not. Metathoracic tibiae with 2 lateral spines and 7 apical black-tipped spines. Metathoracic tarsomere with 8–13 apical black-tipped spines.

  • Male genitalia. Aedeagus stout, nearly straight, aedeagus stem with pair of dorsal processes and pair of ventral processes. Pair of cephalad directed dorsal processes begin from the apex of aedeagus stem on dorsal view. Ventral view at the apex of aedeagus stem with a very distinct concave, pair of cephalad directed ventral processes begin from this concave.

  • Female genitalia. Female ventral view on body segments VI and VII with a black spot on each side or not. Gonoplac triangular with many teeth extending along ventral margin.

  • Remarks

  • Species of Ricanoides can be distinguished from other Ricaniidae by the combination of the following diagnostic characters: clypeus without central carina, mesonotum with lateral carinae inwardly and anteriorly curved and bell-like, Forewing with a black spot at apex angle, costal membrane of Forewing with a very small pterostigma or not, and ventral processes begin from the concavity of the aedeagus.

  • Besides the above diagnostic characters, species of Ricanoides are superficially similar to those of Pochazia Amyot & Serville, 1843 and Ricania Germar, 1818. Ricanoides differs 113 from these genera in having only 2 pairs of processes rather than 3. Ricanoides also be distinguished from Pochazia by the clypeus, which lacks a central carina.

  • Distribution

  • China, Java, Burma, India, Japan.

  • Key to Species of Ricanoides

    1. Forewing with 2 distinct transverse fasciae (Fig. 3) R. flabellum

    —. Forewing without distinct transverse fasciae 2

    2. Ventral posterior margin of anal segment hook-shaped in the lateral view (Fig. 28); ventral processes of aedeagus subparallel in the ventral view (Fig. 32) R. melanicus sp. nov.

    —. Ventral posterior margin of anal segment smooth in the lateral view; ventral processes crossed in the ventral view (Figs. 9, 21, 42, 51) 3

    3. Dorsal view aedeagus with pair of dorsal processes subequal (Figs. 40) and lateral view pygofer with a bulge at dorsal posterior margin (Figs. 39 ) R. pipera

    —. Dorsal view pair of dorsal processes distinctly unequal 4

    4. Left dorsal processes twisted and shorter than right about 0.25:1 (Fig. 18) R. liboensis sp. nov.

    —. Right dorsal processes twisted and shorter than left about 0.25:1 (Fig. 49) R. rotundatus sp. nov.

    Figs. 1–11.

    Ricanoides flabellum Noualhier, 1986. 1. Head and thorax, dorsal view; 2. Frons; 3. Forewing; 4. Metathoracic tibia; 5. Anal segment, dorsal view; 6. Male genitalia, left side; 7. Aedeagus, dorsal view; 8. Aedeagus, left side; 9. Aedeagus, ventral view. 10. Female genitalia, left view; 11. Female genitalia, ventral view. Scale bars = 0.5 mm (Figs. 4–11), 1.0 mm (Figs. 1–2), 2.0 mm (Fig. 3). [See supplementary document with color graphics online at  http://purl.fcla.edu/fcla/entomologist/browse.]

    f01_759.jpg

    Ricanoides flabellum Noualhier, 1896 (Figs. 1–11)
    Ricania flabellum Noualhier, 1896: 256.
    Ricanoides flabellum, Zia, 1935: 539; Fennah, 1956: 211.

  • Material Examined

  • 1 ♂, Congjiang County (N 25° 45′ E 108° 54″), Guizhou Province, China, 15-IX-1979, Z.-Z. Li; 1 ♂, Wangmo County (N 25° 10′ E 106° 06″), Guizhou Province, China, 15-IX-1979, Y.-L. Mu. 3 ♀ ♀, Congjiang County (N 25° 45′ E 108° 54″), Guizhou Province, China, 15-IX-1979, Z.-Z. Li.

  • Description

  • Measurement. Body length (from apex of vertex to tip of Forewings in repose): ♂ 7.5–8.0 mm (n = 2), ♀ 9.2–10.0 mm (n = 3); Forewing length: ♂ 7.2–7.7 mm (n = 4), ♀ 7.5–7.7 mm (n = 2).

  • Coloration. Body, Forewing and vertex yellowish-brown. Eyes offwhite, ocellae red-brown, antennae brown. Forewing with 2 distinct black transverse fasciaes (Fig. 3).

  • Head and Thorax. Vertex (Fig. 1) with distinct central carina and very weak lateral carina, wider at anterior margin than long in middle line (9.0:1). Frons (Fig. 2) rectangle similar, upper margin relatively flat, wider at widest part than length of middle line (1.5:1), with distinct central and lateral carinae. Pronotum wider at widest part than length of middle line (7.0:1), punctations beside central carina, central carina reaches front edge obviously. Mesonotum (Fig. 1) with sublateral carina and central carina subparallel, wider at widest part than length of mid line (1.1:1).

  • Male Genitalia. Lateral view pygofer (Fig. 6) almost quadrilateral, caudad front broad and posterior narrow. Aedeagus (Fig. 7–9) dorsal view cylindrical, pair of dorsal processes not equal, left dorsal processes longer than right about 1.25:1. Lateral view aedeagus stem curves slightly, the shorter dorsal processes equal to ventral processes. Ventral view aedeagus stem with 1 deep concavity at apex, pair of tenuous ventral processes shorter than half length of aedeagus, begin from the concavity then crossed.

  • Host Plants

  • Sugarcane (Saccharum sp.; Poales: Poaceae ), corn (Zea mays L.; Poales: Poaceae)

  • Distribution

  • China (Guizhou, Guangdong, Taiwan); Burma; India; Japan.

  • Remarks

  • This species is similar to R. rotundatus sp. nov., but can be separated from the latter by R. rotundatus sp. nov. having Forewing with 2 black transverse fasciae, left dorsal processes of aedeagus not twisted and pair of ventral processes crossed.

  • Ricanoides liboensis sp. nov. (Figs. 12–22)

  • Material Examined

  • HOLOTYPE: ♂, Libo (N 25° 24′ E 107° 52′), Guizhou Province, China, 18-VII-2011, W.-B. Zheng; PARATYPE S: 1 ♀, same data as holo type; 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Liping (N 26° 13′ E 109° 09′), Guizhou Province, 15-18-VII-2006, P. Zhang; 2 ♂ ♂, Maolan (N 25° 24′ E 107° 52′), Libo County, Guizhou Province, 18-VII-2011, J.-K. Long and Z.-M. Chang.

  • Description

  • Measurement. Body length (from apex of vertex to tip of Forewings in repose): ♂ 9.5–9.7 mm (n = 4), ♀ 9.8–11.0 mm (n = 2); Forewing length: ♂8.1– 8.5 mm (n = 4), ♀ 9.4–10.0 mm (n = 2).

  • Coloration. Deep yellow or dark brown body. Forewing blackish. Forewing (Fig. 14) without black transverse fasciae, a black round spot at the apex angle outside of the second line compounded by cross veins.

  • Head and Thorax. Width of head (including eyes) equal to pronotum. Frons (Fig. 13) rectangle, upper margin relatively flat, wider at widest part than length of the middle line (1.5:1), with distinct central and lateral carina. Vertex (Fig. 12) with central and lateral carina, wider at anterior margin than length of the middle line (14.5:1). Pronotum wider at widest part than length of the middle line (7.5:1), punctuated beside central carina. Mesonotum (Fig. 12) with sublateral carina and central carina subparallel, wider at widest part than length of the middle line (1.1:1).

  • Male Genitalia. Pygofer and segment (Fig. 17) similar to that of R. rotundatus sp. nov. Aedeagus (Fig. 18–21) dorsal view cylindrical, left dorsal processes twisted and much shorter than the right about 0.25:1. Lateral view aedeagus curves slightly, ventral processes shorter than aedeagus 0.60:1, the longer dorsal processes little longer than aedeagus. Ventral view aedeagus with 1 deep concavity at apex, pair of sideways bending ventral processes set out from the concavity of the aedeagus.

  • Distribution

  • China (Guizhou).

  • Etymology

  • The species name is derived from the type locality, Libo County, Guizhou Province.

  • Remarks

  • This species can be separated from other speices by: aedeagus with twisted left dorsal process, and sideways bending ventral processes.

  • Figs. 12–22.

    Ricanoides liboensis sp. nov. 12. Head and thorax, dorsal view; 13. Frons; 14. Forewing; 15. Metathoracic tibia; 16. Anal segment, dorsal view; 17. Male genitalia, left side; 18. Aedeagus, dorsal view; 19. Aedeagus, right side; 20. Aedeagus, left side; 21. Aedeagus, ventral view. 22. Female genitalia, ventral view. Scale bars = 0.5 mm (Figs. 15–21), 1.0 mm (Figs. 12, 13), 2.0 mm (Fig. 14). [See supplementary document with color graphics online at  http://purl.fcla.edu/fcla/entomologist/browse.]

    f12_759.jpg

    Ricanoides melanicus sp. nov. (Figs. 23–33)

  • Material Examined

  • HOLOTYPE: ♂, Wangmo County (N 25° 10′ E 106° 06′), Guizhou Province, China, 20-VIII-2011, Z.-M. Chang; PARATYPES: 1 ♂, same data as holotype; 1 ♂, 2 ♀, Wangmo, Guizhou Province, 19-VIII- 2011, S.-Y. Xu.

  • Description

  • Measurement. Body length (from apex of vertex to tip of Forewings): ♂ 9.5–9.7 mm (n = 2), ♀ 9.8–11.0 mm (n = 2); Forewing length: ♂ 8.5–8.7 mm (n = 2), ♀ 9.4–9.7 mm (n = 2).

  • Coloration. Deep yellow or dark brown body. Frons yellow. Vertex blackish yellow. Mesonotum black. Forewing (Fig. 25) blackish with a black round spot at the apex angle.

  • Head and Thorax. Width of head (including eyes) equal to the pronotum. Frons (Fig. 24) width greater than length, wider at widest part than length of the middle line (1.6:1), central and lateral carina shorter than half the length of frons. Vertex (Fig. 23) wider at anterior margin than length of the middle line (17.0:1), with a black macula at both rear angles and without central and lateral carina. Pronotum (Fig. 23) wider at widest part than length of the middle line (6.9:1). Mesonotum (Fig. 23) with its branch of lateral carina shorter than lateral carina. Forewing (Fig. 25) without black transverse fasciae, 4 veins emanating from basal cell.

  • Male genitalia. Lateral view pygofer (Fig. 28) almost quadrilateral, upper rear margin slightly hollow. Lateral view ventral posterior margin of anal segment (Fig. 27) hooked very obviously. Aedeagus (Figs. 29–33) dorsal view cylindrical, pair of dorsal processes crossed, left dorsal processes shorter than the right about 0.5:1. Lateral view aedeagus stem curves slightly, right dorsal processes a little longer than aedeagus. Ventral view aedeagus stem with 1 deep concavity at apex, pair of tenuous and curving ventral processes set out from the concavity of the aedeagus almost parallel.

  • Distribution

  • China (Guizhou).

  • Etymology

  • The species name is derived from the Latin words “melanicus”, referring to the black mesonotum.

  • Remarks

  • This species can be separated from other species by: the anal segment hooked, pair of tenuous, curving and almost paralleling ventral processes.

  • Ricanoides pipera (Distant, 1914) comb. nov. (Figs. 34– 42)

  • Pochazia pipera Distant, 1914: 420; Chou et al. 1985; Yang, 1989: 174.

  • Pochazia formusona Esaki, 1931: 268, synonymized by Zhou & Lu, 1977: 314.

  • Material Examined

  • 3 ♂ ♂, Jianfengling, Ledong County, Hainan Province, China, 26-IV-2013, J.-K. Long.

  • Description

  • Measurement. Body length (from apex of vertex to tip of Forewings): ♂ 11.0–12.0 m (n = 3); forewing length: ♂ 9.5–9.8 mm (n = 3).

  • Coloration. Body and Forewing blackish. Vertex yellowish-brown. Eyes offwhite, ocellasae red-brown, antennae brown. Forewing (Fig. 36) with a slight black transverse fasciae at middle of the forewing.

  • Head and Thorax. Frons (Fig. 35) rectangle similar, wider at widest part than long in middle line(1.4:l), with distinct central and lateral carina. Pronotum (Fig. 34) wider at widest part than long in middle line (6.8:1), with central carina reach front edge. Mesonotum (Fig. 34) with sublateral carina and central carina subparallel.

  • Male Genitalia. Lateral view pygofer (Fig. 39) with a bulge at dorsal posterior margin. Aedeagus (Figs. 40–42) dorsal view stem cylindrical, pair of equal dorsal processes. Lateral view aedeagus stem curves slightly, dorsal processes shorter than ventral processes about 0.5:1. Ventral view aedeagus stem with 1 deep concavity at apex, pair of tenuous ventral processes equal to length of aedeagus, set out from the concavity then crossed.

  • Distribution

  • China (Taiwan, Hainan); Japan; India.

  • Remarks

  • This species was originally described by Distant (1914) and previously placed in Pochazia. Chou & Lu (1977) proposed that Pochazia formusana Esaki, 1931 is a junior synonym of Pochazia pipera Distant, 1914. Other species of Pochazia have 3 pairs of processes on the aedeagal stem and a central carina on the clypeus. But R. pipera has only 2 pairs of processes, a black point at the apex angle of Forewing, no central carina on the clypeus, and an aedeagal stem with 1 deeply concave at apex at ventral view. These features agree with the features of Ricanoides, so here place this species in Ricanoides. The holotype of Pochazia chienfengensis Chou & Lu (1977) was also collected at Jianfengling, Ledong County, Hainan Province, China, and it is very similar to R. pipera in Chou's description. Although we doubt that it is a junior synonym of R. pipera Distant, 1914, we are uncertain because they did not illustrate it in their paper and it was not available for study.

  • Figs. 23–33.

    Ricanoides melanicus sp. nov. 23. Head and thorax, dorsal view; 24. Frons; 25. Forewing; 26. Metathoracic tibia; 27. Anal segment, dorsal view; 28. Male genitalia, left side; 29. Aedeagus, dorsal view; 33. Aedeagus, right side; 31. Aedeagus, left side; 32. Aedeagus, ventral view; 33. Female genitalia, ventral view. Scale bars = 0.5 mm (Figs. 26–33), 1.0 mm (Figs. 23, 24), 2.0 mm (Fig. 25). [See supplementary document with color graphics online at  http://purl.fcla.edu/fcla/entomologist/browse .]

    f23_759.jpg

    Figs. 34–42.

    Ricanoides pipera (Distant, 1914), comb. now. 34. Head and thorax, dorsal view; 35. Frons; 36. Forewing; 37. Anal segment, dorsal view; 38. Male genitalia, left side; 39. Metathoracic tibia; 40. Aedeagus, dorsal view; 41. Aedeagus, left side; 42. Aedeagus, ventral view. Scale bars = 0.5 mm (Figs. 37–42), 1.0 mm (Figs. 34, 35), 2.0 mm (Fig. 36). [See supplementary document with color graphics online at  http://purl.fcla.edu/fcla/entomologist/browse.]

    f34_759.jpg

    Ricanoides rotundatus sp. nov. (Figs. 43–51)

  • Material Examined

  • HOLOTYPE: ♂, Congjiang County (N 25° 45′ E 108° 53′), Guizhou Province, China, 28-VII-1978, coll. Z.-Z. Li; PARATYPES: 12 ♂ ♂, 15 ♀ ♀, same data as holotype; 4 ♂ ♂, 5 ♀ ♀, Congjiang County, Guizhou Province, 15-IX-1979; Z.-Z. Li; 2 ♂ ♂, 6 ♀ ♀, Daming Mountain (N 23° 27′ E 108° 30, 400 m), Nanning City, Guangxi Autonomous Region, 22-VII-2007, Y.-B. Zhang; 2 ♂ ♂, 3 ♀ ♀, Daming Mountain, Nanning City, Guangxi Autonomous Region, 5-10-VIII- 2011, Z.-H. Yang; 1 ♂, Leigong Mountain (N 26° 23′ E 108° 13′, 1,000–1,100 m), Guizhou Province, 13-14-IX-2005, Q.-R. Liao.

  • Description

  • Measurement. Body length (from apex of vertex to tip of Forewings): ♂ 9.5–9.7 mm (n = 20), ♀ 9.8–11.0 mm (n = 20); forewing length: ♂ 8.8–9.0 mm (n = 20), ♀ 9.4–9.7 mm (n = 20).

  • Coloration. Body deep yellow or dark brown. Frons yellow. Vertex blackish yellow. Pronotum dark-brown, rear edge of pronotum dark-browns close to black. Mesonotum and Forewing deep yellow or blackish brown. Forewing costal margin very shallowly convex with a very little Yellow-white pterostigma.

  • Head and Thorax. Width of head (include eyes) and pronotum equals. Frons (Fig. 44) wider at widest part than long in middle line(1.4:l), cental carina longer than half length of frons. Vertex (Fig. 43) wider at anterior margin than the length of the middle line (13.0:1), with a black macula at both rear angles and very weak central and lateral carina. Pronotum (Fig. 43) wider at widest part than the length of middle line (6.1:1), central carina of pronotum begins rear edge and not reach front edge. Mesonotum (Fig. 43) wider at widest part than the length of the middle line (0.86:1). Forewing (Fig. 45) with apical angle cambered, anal angle about right angle. Four veins emanating from basal cell, R2 running very close to M1, but not merged with M1. Forewing without black transverse fasciae.

  • Male Genitalia. Dorsal view anal segment (Fig. 47) middle part of lateral margin narrow, posterior part greatly convexon both sides. Aedeagus (Figs. 49–51) dorsal view cylindrical, right dorsal processes twisted and much shorter than left about 0.25:1. Lateral view aedeagus curved slightly, left dorsal processes longer than ventral processes, and also longer than aedeagus stem. Ventral view aedeagus stem with 1 deep concavity at apex, pair of tenuous ventral processes longer than half length of aedeagus, set out from the concave of the aedeagus then crossed.

  • Distribution

  • China (Guizhou, Guangxi).

  • Host Plant Species

  • Corn (Zea mays L.; Poales: Poaceae), pear (Pyrus spp.; Rosales: Rosaceae)

  • Etymology

  • The species name is derived from the Latin words “rotundatus”, referring to the Forewing with a black round spot at the apical angle.

  • Remarks

  • This species is similar to R. flabellum Noualhier, 1896, but can be separated from the latter by having the Forewing with a small black and obviously round spot at the apex angle, and without 2 black transverse fasciae and the twisted left dorsal processes of the aedeagus shorter obviously than the right.

  • Figs. 43–53.

    Ricanoides rotundatus sp. nov. 43. Head and thorax, dorsal view; 44. Frons; 45. Forewing; 46. Metathoracic tibia; 47. Anal segment, dorsal view; 48. Male genitalia, left side; 49. Aedeagus, dorsal view; 50. Aedeagus, left side; 51. Aedeagus, ventral view; 52. Female genitalia, left side; 53. Female genitalia, ventral view. Scale bars = 0.5 mm (Figs. 46–53), 1.0 mm (Figs. 43, 44), 2.0 mm (Fig. 45). [See supplementary document with color graphics online at  http://purl.fcla.edu/fcla/entomologist/browse.]

    f43_759.jpg

    Acknowledgments

    We thank Dr. J.-C. Xing and H. Li (Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, China) for reviewing the manuscript. We also thank Z.-Z. Li, Q.-R. Liao, Z.-H. Yang, P. Zhang, J.-K. Long, Z.-M. Chang, W. B. Zheng and S.-Y. Xu (Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, China) for collecting valuable specimens. This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 31060290, 31093430, 31160163) and the International Science and Technology Cooperation Program of Guizhou (Grant no. 20107005).

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    Notes

    [1] A pdf file with supplementary material for this article in Florida Entomologist 97(2) (2014) is online at  http://purl.fcla.edu/fcla/entomologist/browse.

    Yu-Bo Zhang, Lin Yang, and Xiang-Sheng Chen "Revision of the Genus Ricanoides (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Ricaniidae) with Descriptions of Three New Species and One New Combination," Florida Entomologist 97(2), 759-769, (1 June 2014). https://doi.org/10.1653/024.097.0258
    Published: 1 June 2014
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