A new phytoseiid species, Amblyseius constrictus Argolo, Oliveira & Moraes sp. nov. (Acari: Phytoseiidae), is described and illustrated. The specimens were collected from tropical ornamentals, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) K.Schum.; Malvales: Sterculiaceae) fruits and from other trees in shaded cacao plantations in the southern coast of the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil.
The commercial cultivation of tropical ornamentals, tropical fruit trees, and cacao has been the basis of the agricultural economy in the coastal region of southern Bahia State. This is one of the largest Brazilian states, located in the northeastern part of the country. Phytoseiid mites are known for their common occurrence on plants and their efficiency as biological control agents of phytophagous mites (Gerson et al. 2003; McMurtry et al. 2013). Fiftyone species of Phytoseiidae were already registered in the state of Bahia (Demite et al. 2014). However, few studies have reported these mites in the coastal region of southern Bahia (Lawson-Balagbo et al. 2008; Souza et al. 2010). The aim of this paper is to describe a new phytoseiid species collected from leaves of tropical ornamentals, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) K.Schum.; Malvales: Sterculiaceae) and other trees in shaded cacao plantations in that region.
Materials and Methods
Leaves of Heliconia psittacorum × Heliconia spathocircinata cv. ‘Alan Carle’ (Heliconiaceae), Alpinia purpurata cv. ‘Red Ginger’ (Zingiberaceae), cupuaçu tree Theobroma grandiflorum (Sterculiaceae) and Cordia trichotoma Arrabida ex Steudel (Boraginaceae) were sampled from shaded cacao plantations in the municipalities of Ilhéus and Valença, state of Bahia. They were taken to a laboratory for examination under a stereomicroscope. The phytoseiid mites found were mounted on slides with Hoyer's medium and examined under a phase-contrast microscope. The specimens were measured with the use of a graded eye-piece. After determining that they belonged to an undescribed species, they were illustrated with the use of a drawing tube and finished with Adobe Illustrator CS6 Series®.
In the following description, all measurements are given in micrometers, each measurement corresponding to the average for the mites collected followed (in parentheses) by the respective ranges and the value in the holotype female. Idiosomal setal notation is that of Rowell et al. (1978) and Chant & Yoshida-Shaul (1989) for the dorsal surface and that of Chant & Yoshida-Shaul (1991) for the ventral surface of the idiosoma. Macrosetal notation is that of Muma et al. (1970).
Amblyseius constrictus sp. nov. (Figs. 1–5).
The new species is characterized by having the dorsal shield smooth; all dorsal, ventral and leg setae smooth and sharp-tipped; sternal shield mostly smooth, with few lateral striae; ventrianal shield vase shaped, mostly smooth, with a profound constriction immediately behind JV1; calyx tubular, slightly constricted near basis; atrium undifferentiated.
The epithet constrictus refers to the profound constriction of the ventrianal shield immediately behind JV1.
Female (7 Specimens Measured)
Dorsum (Fig. 1)—Dorsal shield smooth; with 14 pairs of lyrifissures and eight pairs of pores; setal pattern 10A:9B; 352 (326–366, 336) long and 282 (271–305, 274) wide; setal lengths: jl 31 (30–34, 31), j3 39 (37–41, 41), j4 7 (7–8, 7), j5 7 (6–8, 8), j6 8 (6–8, 8), J2 9 (8–10, 10), J5 7 (6–8, 7), z2 17 (15–18, 15), z4 12 (11–13, 11), z5 7 (7–8, 7), Z1 9 (7–11, 11), Z4 112 (107–116, 113), Z5 223 (214–229, 229), s4 89 (85–92, 92), S2 11 (10–12, 12), S4 10 (9–11, 11), S5 9 (8–11, 8), r3 13 (12–15, 15), R1 10 (8–11, 10). All setae smooth and pointed. Peritreme—Extending beyond level of jl. Venter (Fig. 2)—Sternal shield mostly smooth, with few lateral striae, 3 pairs of setae and 2 pairs of lyrifissures; distances between setae St1–St3 63 (61–64, 64), St2–St2 75 (72–76, 73). Genital shield smooth; distance between St5–St5 73 (69–76, 69). Ventrianal shield vase shaped, mostly smooth, with a profound constriction immediately behind JV1, 113 (98–119, 98) long, 68 (64–76, 76) wide at level of ZV2, and 79 (76–81, 76) wide at anus level, with 3 pairs of pre-anal setae (JV1, JV2 and ZV2) and a pair of round pores posteromesad of JV2; setae JV4, JV5, ZV1, and ZV3 on unsclerotised cuticle. Ventral setae smooth and pointed. Two pairs of metapodal plates. Chelicera (Fig. 3)—Fixed digit 31 (30–32, 31) long, with 14 (13–15, 15) teeth; movable digit 38 (36–40, 40) long, with 3–4, 3 teeth. Spermatheca (Fig. 4)—Calyx tubular, 16 (14–18,18) long, slightly constricted near region of fusion with major duct; atrium undifferentiated. Leg macrosetae (Fig. 5)—Sge I 39 (37–43, 40) Sge II 37 (37–40, 40), Sge III 48 (43–55, 43), Sti III 34 (34–37, 34), Sge IV 97 (92–101, 98), Sti IV 61 (58–64, 64), St IV 75 (70–79, 70), all pointed. Chaetotaxy: genu II 1-2/1, 2/0-1; genu III 1-2/1, 2/0-1.
Seven slides: HOLOTYPE 1 female BRAZIL: Bahia, Ilhéus, Fazenda Terra Nova (14°43′52″S, 39°09′16″W), 25-V-2007, from H. psittacorum x H. spathocircinata cv. ‘Alan Carle’, A.R. Oliveira (deposited at Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, UESC, Ilhéus, Bahia). PARATYPES 3 females BRAZIL: Bahia, Ilhéus, Campus of UESC (14°47′49″S, 39°10′23″W), 1-VI11-2014, from C. trichotoma Arrabida ex Steudel, A.N. Carvalho (UESC). 1 female BRAZIL: Bahia, Ilhéus, Campus of UESC (14°47′49″S, 39°10′23″W), 14-1-2008, from A. purpurata cv. ‘Red Ginger’, A.R. Oliveira (deposited at Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, ESALQ, Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil). 2 females BRAZIL: Bahia, Valença, Fazenda Barra (13°21′05″S, 39°19′57″W), 15-VI11-2007, from T. grandiflorum, A.R. Oliveira (ESALQ).
This new species is similar to Amblyseius coffeae De Leon (1961), Amblyseius fernandezi Chant & Baker (1965), and Amblyseius operculatus De Leon (1967), in relation to the general measurements and general shape of spermatheca, but it differs from them by having a profound constriction of the ventrianal shield immediately behind JV1, and by having the spermathecal calyx slightly constricted near region of fusion with the major duct. In addition, it differs from A. coffeae by having preanal pores rounded (ellipsoidal in A. coffeae), from A. fernandezi by having z2 longer (in the latter 9–12 according to Denmark & Muma ), and from A. operculatus by having spermathecal calyx longer (in the latter 10 according to De Leon , 8 according to Denmark & Muma , and 8–12 according to Gondim Jr. & Moraes ). The following key can be used to separate those species:
1. — Spermatheca with atrium globular A. fernandezi
1′. — Spermatheca with atrium undifferentiated 2
2. — Preanal pores ellipsoidal A. coffeae
2′. — Preanal pores rounded 3
3. — Ventrianal shield with a profound constriction immediately behind JV1; calix of spermatheca with a slight constriction near region of fusion with major duct A. constrictus sp. nov.
3′. — Ventrianal shield without constriction behind JV1; calix of spermatheca with constriction near region of fusion with major duct A. operculatus
We are grateful to Adeilma N. de Carvalho for specimens provided and to CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) for the Post-Doc grant to P.S.A. This work was partially supported by the State of Bahia Research Foundation (FAPESB 7736/2006). G.J.M. is a CNPq researcher.