New material of eomyids from the very Early Oligocene of southern Germany and the late Early Oligocene of France and Spain has been studied. In Germany besides the previously known and unique Eomys antiquus (Aymard, 1853), two other species have been found including an undetermined genus, Eomyidae gen. et sp. indet, with unexpected morphological features that were considered as derived based on our current knowledge. These three species show that at least three immigrant lineages were present as early as the beginning of the Oligocene in Europe. In France and Spain, except for Eomys antiquus which confirms its large geographical distribution, the species found are unlikely to have evolved from the German ones, thus suggesting another immigration wave of eomyids in Europe. Finally, the diversity of the first European eomyids is higher than expected, leading us to consider a more complex evolutionary history than a simple radiation from Eomys antiquus as previously proposed. Despite the limited material available, the undetermined genus, here considered as a likely new genus, shows some clear morphological affinities with the Asian late Oligocene genus Asianeomys Wu, Meng, Ye & Ni, 2006, thus suggesting a possible common Asian ancestor.
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Vol. 32 • No. 2