Yanomamua araca is described as a new genus and species from Serra do Araçá, an outlier of the Guayana Region in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Yanomamua is unique in the Gentianaceae as an herb with sessile subcordate pandurate (fiddle-shaped) leaves, and inflorescences composed of oppositely paired solitary flowers situated in the axils of the upper three leaf pairs. Only limited material is available, and flower morphology is unknown. A phylogenetic approach was used to investigate possible relationships to other genera in Helieae, which yielded a likely relationship to several genera in the Symbolanthus-Chelonanthus clade but not a strong relationship to any particular genus. Instead it appears that this genus might represent a more internal, older branch within the tribe.
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