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1 December 2008 History of the Peoples of the Great Hungarian Plain in the First Millennium: A Craniometric Point of View
Gábor Holló, László Szathmáry, Antónia Marcsik, Zoltán Barta
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We carried out an examination relying on six dimensions of 1,573 crania coming from the Great Hungarian Plain. The crania represent seven archeological periods: Sarmatian age (1–4th century), the period of transition (about 400–420), Hun and Gepidic epochs (about 420–455 and 455–567, respectively), early Avar age (about 568–670), late Avar period (about 670–895), the epoch of the Hungarian conquest and settlement (about 895–1000), and the Arpadian age (about 1000–1301). We were curious about the anatomical background behind cultural changes of the various populations that inhabited this area. After having noticed some discontinuities between the populations, as revealed by univariate analysis of single dimensions, we performed a principal-components analysis to see whether or not the diverse components showed eventual breaks in the sequence of the populations. Knowing that all the dominant populations had Asian roots, except for the Gepids of Germanic origin, we expected a considerable difference between the Gepidic population and all the other inhabitants. We also assumed that a conquest itself with a large-scale assimilation was unlikely to leave breaklike traits in anatomical patterns, except for aggressive conquests. We found that the second principal component (which correlated with cranial breadth and partly with height) showed a remarkable hiatus in both sexes between Gepids and early Avars. Having done a statistical proof (simultaneous tests for general linear hypotheses) of the observed phenomenon, we found that the gap referring to subsequent populations was significant only in males. A possible reason for this result is that the Avar conquest was much more radical than has been thought. In addition, considering that men were more likely to die in wars, women survived and were assimilated into the conquerors' populations with higher probability, so it is not surprising that the results of multicomparison tests are significant only in men.

Gábor Holló, László Szathmáry, Antónia Marcsik, and Zoltán Barta "History of the Peoples of the Great Hungarian Plain in the First Millennium: A Craniometric Point of View," Human Biology 80(6), 655-667, (1 December 2008).
Received: 28 August 2008; Accepted: 1 November 2008; Published: 1 December 2008
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