Bateman's principles, their corollaries and predictions constitute a paradigm for the study of sexual selection theory, evolution of mating systems, parental investment theory, and sexual dimorphism in male and female behavior. Some aspects of this paradigm have been challenged in recent years, while others have been supported by empirical and theoretical research. We re-examine Bateman's 1948 paper in detail, including some methodological problems. Additionally, we review three areas in which an over-reliance on Bateman's predictions about sexual dynamics hindered our ability to understand the potential importance of certain behaviors: 1) male mate choice and sperm allocation; 2) the role of females in initiating and soliciting extra-pair copulations and fertilizations; and 3) the role of females in lekking systems, in which recent evidence suggests that copulations with multiple males (polyandrous behavior) may be common. We conclude this introduction to the symposium by emphasizing the heuristic value of Bateman's contributions, as well as the problems that arise when Bateman's paradigm is viewed through the lens of modern behavioral ecology and evolutionary theory.
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Vol. 45 • No. 5