The present paper presents a cladistic analysis of the spider genus Tobias Simon, 1895. The analyses were based on a matrix with 29 terminal taxa scored for 86 morphological characters, with a dataset tested under two methodologies for character weighting (i.e. equal and implied weighting). Both analyses supported the paraphyletic relationship of Tobias with Epicadus Simon, 1895, with the former considered a junior synonym of the latter (new synonymy). Onocolus, Epicadinus and Epicadus form a clade supported by two synapomorphies, corroborating previous taxonomic assumptions regarding the proximity of these genera. Epicadus has two lineages: the ‘pustulosus clade’, comprising bark-like individuals that camouflage themselves on tree trunks and branches, and the ‘heterogaster clade’, which consists of a group of spiders that present a wide range of polychromatism and use flowers as hunting sites. Synonymies are presented and a new combination for all species previously assigned as part of Tobias is proposed. Epicadus now comprises nine species.
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Vol. 31 • No. 4