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1 December 2011 Pharmacokinetics of Clindamycin Administered Orally to Pigeons
Thomas Lenarduzzi, Cory Langston, Matthew K. Ross
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To determine the plasma concentration of clindamycin in pigeons after oral administration, 12 rock pigeons (Columba livia) were used in a 2-phase study. In the first phase, 8 pigeons received clindamycin by gavage at 100 mg/kg as a single dose. Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 hours, and the plasma was separated, frozen, and subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for clindamycin and its active metabolites, N-demethylclindamycin (NCLD) and clindamycin sulfoxide. Clindamycin was rapidly absorbed with plasma concentrations peaking at 0.5 hours at 1.43 µg/mL. The terminal half-life (t1/2) was 1.25 hours, and the mean residence time was 2.49 hours. N-demethylclindamycin was detected in 7 of 8 birds (88%), whereas clindamycin sulfoxide was not found in any samples. In phase 2, clindamycin was administered to 3 birds by gavage at 100 mg/kg q6h for 5 doses. Mean peak plasma concentrations were 2.46 and 0.64 µg/mL, with trough concentrations of 0.11 and 0.44 µg/mL for clindamycin and NCLD, respectively. No adverse effects were observed in any birds. Based on an additive antimicrobial effect of NCLD with clindamycin, an oral dosage of 100 mg/kg q6h in pigeons should reach effective plasma concentrations against common susceptible pathogens. If dose proportionality exists, lower doses and longer intervals likely produce subtherapeutic concentrations to treat systemic infections. How well birds would tolerate an extended oral dose regimen, how frequently birds fail to produce the active metabolite critical for an additive effect, and the application of these results to other avian species require further study.

Thomas Lenarduzzi, Cory Langston, and Matthew K. Ross "Pharmacokinetics of Clindamycin Administered Orally to Pigeons," Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 25(4), 259-265, (1 December 2011).
Published: 1 December 2011
Columba livia
Rock Pigeon
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