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1 September 2013 Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Properties of Enrofloxacin in Southern Crested Caracaras (Caracara plancus)
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To determine the dosage of enrofloxacin in southern crested caracaras (Caracara plancus), plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography after intravenous (IV) (5 mg/kg) and intramuscular (IM) (10 mg/kg) administration. This compound presented a relatively high volume of distribution (2.09 L/kg), a total body clearance of 0.24 L/kg·h, and a long permanence as shown by an elimination half-life of 7.81 hours after IV administration and a terminal half-life of 6.58 hours after IM administration. The areas under the concentration-time curves (AUC) were 21.92 and 34.38 μg·h/mL for IM and IV administration, respectively. Enrofloxacin was rapidly absorbed after IM administration with a time to reach maximum concentration of 0.72 hours and bioavailability of 78.76%. After IM administration, the peak drug concentration (Cmax) was 3.92 μg/mL. Values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), Cmax, and AUC have been used to predict the clinical efficacy of a drug in treating bacterial infections, with a Cmax/MIC value of 10 and an AUC/MIC ratio of 125–250 associated with optimal bactericidal effects. By using the study data and a MIC breakpoint of 0.25 μg/mL, values of Cmax/MIC were 13.74 and 15.94 and for AUC/MIC were 90.73 and 139.63, for the IV and IM routes respectively. For the treatment of infectious diseases caused by microorganisms with MIC ≤0.25 μg/mL, the calculated optimal dosages were 7.5 and 9.5 mg/kg q24h by the IV and IM routes, respectively. For less susceptible bacteria, a dose increase should be evaluated. To treat caracara by the IV route against microorganisms with MIC ≤0.25 μg/mL, the dose should be higher than the 5 mg/kg used in our study, but possible side effects derived from an increase in the IV dose and efficacy in sick birds should be assessed.

Samanta Waxman, Ana Paula Prados, Julio de Lucas, Manuel Ignacio San Andres, Juan Carlos Sassaroli, Marcela Orozco, Hernán Argibay, and Casilda Rodriguez "Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Properties of Enrofloxacin in Southern Crested Caracaras (Caracara plancus)," Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 27(3), 180-186, (1 September 2013).
Published: 1 September 2013

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