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1 September 2014 Pharmacokinetics of Levetiracetam in Healthy Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis) After Oral Administration of a Single Dose
Rodney Schnellbacher, Hugues Beaufrère, Dr Med Vet, Robert D. Arnold, Thomas N. Tully, Joerg Mayer, Stephen J. Divers
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Abstract

Long-term anticonvulsive treatments have been poorly described in birds, and few pharmacokinetic studies have been performed, with mixed results. Levetiracetam, a new anticonvulsive drug, has shown good efficacy for monotherapy or adjunctive treatment of seizures in both human and veterinary medicine. To determine pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 20 healthy birds were randomly divided into 2 groups and administered either a 50 mg/kg (n = 10) or a 100 mg/kg (n = 10) oral dose of levetiracetam with no observable adverse effects. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 12 time intervals (6 per group) for 16 hours. The concentration–time profiles resembled characteristic absorption, with maximum plasma concentrations of 61.0 μg/mL and 95.1 μg/mL at 60 minutes; terminal half-lives at 2.38 and 2.37 hours; volumes of distribution of 0.807 and 0.773 L/kg, with an area under the curve at 14 100 and 28 820 mg × min/L; and clearance rates of 3.65 and 3.60 mL/min per kg, respectively. Plasma concentrations were greater than 5.5 mg/L for up to 9.4 and 12 hours, suggesting an 8- and 12-hour oral dosing at 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, would be sufficient to maintain targeted values. Clinically, doses and frequencies may need escalation based on differences in species and individuals, and drug levels should be monitored.

Rodney Schnellbacher, Hugues Beaufrère, Dr Med Vet, Robert D. Arnold, Thomas N. Tully, Joerg Mayer, and Stephen J. Divers "Pharmacokinetics of Levetiracetam in Healthy Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis) After Oral Administration of a Single Dose," Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 28(3), 193-200, (1 September 2014). https://doi.org/10.1647/2013-057
Published: 1 September 2014
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