ALARI, V. and RAUDSEPP, U., 2012. Simulation of wave damping near coast due to offshore wind farms.
Two hundred wind turbines with an annual productivity of 2.3 TWh, which could produce up to 30% of the energy Estonia needs, are scheduled to be constructed on separate shallows in the NW Estonian coastal waters (the Baltic Sea), 5–20 km off shore. With numerical modeling, we have established a potential impact of the wind farms on wave heights. We concluded that the impact exists in terms of the reduction of significant wave height, but it is very marginal, not more than 1% below 10-m isobaths. This is due to a very small ratio between the turbine diameter and dominant wavelength and the favorable setup of turbines with respect to each other and the coast.