Yao, J.-H., 2019. The development trend of marine economy based on multi-objective decision analysis. In: Gong, D.; Zhu, H., and Liu, R. (eds.), Selected Topics in Coastal Research: Engineering, Industry, Economy, and Sustainable Development. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 94, pp. 613–616. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.
There are two related characteristics of technological progress. It is very important to propose a multi-contribution model for offshore oil and gas operations. First, technology can be improved in the long run. Second, every time a new technology emerges to meet the needs of the operation. Lanford pointed out three characteristics of technological progress. First, the S-shaped Curve is suitable for deep water development because many practices over the years have proven this. Second, the modified logistics curve can be used to simulate the entire technological advancement, including major technological breakthroughs in deep water development for more than a decade. Finally, one technology replaces the other and also conforms to the characteristics of the S-curve. The initial replacement rate is very low, and then the new technology is received in large quantities. This substitution behavior is gradually reduced at the maturity stage.