Nakuru National Park is lacking an overall account of its vegetation. A floristic survey, using satellite images and ground diversity exploration, resulted in a detailed map of 24 vegetation types, which are briefly described in ten major edaphic and geomorphological habitats. Comments are made about the diversity of the stands in terms of species numbers and life forms, and upon the relationship between diversity and environment in this area.
The survey has also produced a comprehensive Plant Check List with over 575 vascular plant species for many of which a range of distribution within the Park has been given, referring to the described vegetation types. The most diverse flowering plant families are the Compositae (Asteraceae) with 40, the Gramineae (Poaceae) with 50 and Leguminosae with 57 (Caesalpinaceae 5, Mimosaceae 10, and Papilionaceae 42) species respectively. The most characteristic families of the Park are the Solanaceae and Malvaceae whose flora represents about 19% of that in East Africa. The Euphorbiaceae and Rubiaceae are under-represented in the Park.
THE VEGETATION OF LAKE NAKURU NATIONAL PARK, KENYA: A SYNOPSIS OF THE VEGETATION TYPES WITH ANNOTATED SPECIES LISTJoseph G. MutangahBiodiversity Surveys, National Museums of Kenya,Box 45166, Nairobi, KenyaABSTRACTNakuru National Park is lacking an overall account of its vegetation. A floristic survey, using satellite images and ground diversity exploration, resulted in a detailed map of 24 vegetation types, which are briefly described in ten major edaphic and geomorphological habitats. Comments are made about the diversity of the stands in terms of species numbers and life forms, and upon the relationship between diversity and environment in this area.The survey has also produced a comprehensive Plant Check List with over 575 vascular plant species for many of which a range of distribution within the Park has been given, referring to the described vegetation types. The most diverse flowering plant families are the Compositae (Asteraceae) with 40, the Gramineae (Poaceae) with 50 and Leguminosae with 57 (Caesalpinaceae 5, Mimosaceae 10, and Papilionaceae 42) species respectively. The most characteristic families of the Park are the Solanaceae and Malvaceae whose flora represents about 19% of that in East Africa. The Euphorbiaceae and Rubiaceae are underrepresented in the Park.Key Words: alkaline grasslands, plant diversity, vegetation mapping.INTRODUCTIONLake Nakuru National Park is in the Rift Valley Province of Kenya, about 2 km from Nakuru town (fig. 1). The Park is internationally famous for its large population of water fowl with over one million flamingos and hundreds of pelicans, cormorants and ducks (Vaucher, 1973).Figure 1: location of the study areaIt was first established as a bird sanctuary in 1961 and consisted of the Lake and its immediate shoreline with an area of approximately 42 km⟨sup⟩2⟨/sup⟩. Later, with assistance from the World Wide Fund for Nature, the surrounding farms and ranches were purchased and added to the park area which now extends to about 188 km⟨sup⟩2⟨/sup⟩, including the lake, the shoreline and terrestrial habitats (Vaucher, 1973).The Rift Valley is a zone of complex geology, much influenced by tectonic and volcanic forces which altered the landscape from a peneplain into the present diverse range of landforms, each with a separate vegetation cover, structure and species composition (McCall, 1967).These landforms include Sirrkon Hill (Lion Hill), the Western Escarpment, the central plains, the tuff cones (Elmenteita tuff cones consisting of the Honey Moon and Crescent Hill) and the lake with its littoral zone (fig. 2). In spite of the increasing importance of this Park as an animal and bird sanctuary, as well as the many research activities centred on the Park, comprehensive botanical information is unavailable. The purpose of this paper is to describe the overall vegetation types of the Park using physiognomic structural features and the diversity of species and habitats, and also to provide a checklist for future monitoring.METHODSTwo survey methods were employed: aerial photographic interpretations and ground floristic survey. Aerial photographs and LANDSAT images of the Park area from 1979 and 1986 were used to locate and plot the main physiognomic vegetation types. These included forests, woodlands, bushlands and grasslands with the escarpment or cliff formations and shoreline as incidental occasional features.Ground survey was carried out after the rainy season, from September to December 1987, when vegetation development was maximal. Each vegetation type was visited three times and all vascular plants encountered were recorded. The three species lists were finally combined. Each species was recorded under a life form category as trees, high shrubs, low shrubs, forbs and graminoids. The definitions of these categories were made as follows: trees as single-stemmed plants more than three metres in height; high shrubs as multi-stemmed species more than two metres high; low shrubs as all woody plants up to two metres in height; forbs as broadleaved perennial or annual herbs; graminoids as grasses and sedges.Habitats were assessed along transects from the lake shore into higher altitudes. Therefore the habitat list starts with grassland and traverses through bushland to woodland and forests. Finally the composite habitats of cliffs, nutritionally augmented vegetation and river margins are enumerated.Various classification systems have been attempted for East African vegetation (one of the most recent being that of Grundblatt et al., 1989). For simplicity, clarity and convenience, the vegetation of Lake Nakuru National Park was classified using vegetation structure classes described by Loth and Prins (1986).Plant identifications were carried out with the aid of various publications including the Flora of Tropical East Africa, Gramineae, (Clayton, 1970; 1974; 1984), Upland Kenya Wildflowers (Agnew, 1974) and Kenya Trees and Shrubs (Dale & Greenway, 1961). Nomenclature has been updated from manuscript on Agnew & Agnew, 1994 and Beentje, 1994. Plants that could not be identified in the field were collected and compared with the reference collections in the National Herbarium, National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi.Figure 2: topographic featuresMost species' records were associated with notes on a particular vegetation type, from each of a series of habitats. Here, therefore, the check-list includes a listing of the vegetation types and habitats from which the species is known. There are records of species in the Park that were made by other workers (e.g. Mr. J.B. Gillett, 1967 and O.M. Mwangangi, 1970, both unpublished). These species are listed but without any enumeration of vegetation type origin. Such additional records alter the figures of families, genera and species reported earlier by the author (Mutangah, 1989).For simple reference the list is presented in alphabetical order of families and species. This seems to be the preferred format for field workers who need a ready memorandum for identifications. Reference works are available to assign genera to families (Mabberley, 1983).RESULTSVegetation SurveyOn the basis of structural characteristics and diversity, terrain features and differing shades on the infra-red LANDSAT prints, 24 vegetation types were differentiated (table 1, fig. 3).Figure 3: Physiognomic vegetation typesTable 1. Habitats and associated vegetation types of Nakuro National Park and their mnemonics used in figure 2 and table 2. The list is in the order of a natural progression from the lakeside to the Plateau hinterland.CodeTypeG1Grassland, bushed Themeda triandra typeG2Grassland, Digitaria abyssinica typeG3Grassland, Cynodon nlemfuensis typeG4Grassland, Chloris gayana typeG5Grassland, Sporobolus spicatus typeG6Grassland, Cynodon-Chloris-Themeda typeG7Grassland, Cynodon nlemfuensis-Acacia xanthophloea typeB1Bushland, Pluchea bequaertii typeB2Bushland, Psiadia-Aspilia typeB3aBushland, Tarchonanthus-Acacia gerrardii typeB3bBushland, Tarchonanthus-Acacia xanthophloea typeB3cBushland, Tarchonanthus-Euphorbia candelabrum typeB3dBushland, mixed Tarchonanthus type.W1Woodland, Acacia xanthophloea typeW2Woodland, Acacia seyal typeF1Forest, Acacia xanthophloea typeF2Forest, Euphorbia candelabrum typeF3Forest, Olea africana typeSMAlkaline marshSVFresh water swampCEVCliff and escarpment vegetationLOVLava Outcrop vegetationRVRiverine forest and woodlandSIVSewage-influenced vegetationUsing these as mapping units a physiognomic vegetation map was plotted (fig. 3). Tarchonanthus bushlands (B3) dominate the slopes, the plateau and hill tops on both sides of the Lake. These include, to the east (Lion Hill) Tarchonanthus camphoratus with Acacia gerrardii (B3a) and to the West (Mau Escarpment) Tarchonanthus camphoratus with Acacia xanthophloea (B3b). A bushland of Tarchonanthus camphoratus with Euphorbia candelabrum (B3c) dominant is only found to the South of the Lake and nowhere else on the central plain.Three forest types were recognised: Acacia xanthophloea (F1) along the margins of the lakeshore, Euphobia candelabrum forest (F2) on the Southern slopes of Lion Hill east of the Lake and Olea africana forest (F3) on the Mau escarpment to the south-west of the Lake.The rest of the central plains, including the lake basin, are dominated by grasslands (G) and Acacia xanthophloea woodlands (W1) and forests (F1). The shoreline is occupied by alkaline marshes (SM), fresh-water swamps (SV) and peripheral bushlands of Pluchea bequaertii (B1). The main river systems are accompanied by riverine vegetation (RV).Diversities in each stratum of vegetation are represented in histograms (fig. 4). A full species list is given in the appendix but, for the purpose of describing the stands, the dominant species of the main vegetation types are shown in table 2.The following are brief descriptions of each vegetation community delimited here within each habitat type.GrasslandsGrasslands in the Park sometimes have scattered or grouped trees and shrubs that contribute less than two percent cover. They are widely spread throughout the Park particularly on the lake shoreline, the flood plains in the South and on the gentle slopes of Lion Hill to the East, often on soils with impeded drainage or lacustrine sediments or superficia⟨sup⟩1⟨/sup⟩ volcanic deposits over diatomaceous sediments. Seven grass communities were recognised and mapped (fig. 3).G1, Bushed Themeda triandra grasslandThis dominates the northern part of the Park and is characterised by tall grasses of Themeda triandra, Chloris gayana and Hyparrhenia hirta, with low bushes of Lippia ukambensis, Lippia javanica and Lantana trifolia. On the northern border of the Park a narrow strip of G1 is dominated by Acacia trees (A. xanthophloea, A. gerrardii, A. hockii ).G2, Digitaria abyssinica grasslandThis type can be found on the flat furrowed plains to the north and on the eastern slopes of Lion Hill. It is composed of short grasses Digitaria abyssinica and Cynodon nlemfluensis with occasional Themeda, and is very important in wild herbivore grazing systems. There are scattered trees of Acacia xanthophloea.G3, Cynodon nlemfuensis grasslandThe main grassland of the Park, widely distributed in the southern and eastern areas, is dominated by Cynodon nlemfluensis with a few scattered trees of Acacia xanthophloea. There are some shrubs (Maerua triphylla, Maytenus heterophylla and Cordia ovalis ) which make up insignificant cover.G4, Chloris gayana grasslandThis type is found on the western and southern shores of the Lake between the alkaline grasslands (G5) and the Acacia xanthophloea woodland (W1). Tall Chloris gayana is dominant with 95% ground cover, interrupted by occasional Acacia xanthophloea and bushes of Tarchonanthus camphoratus, Rhus natalensis and Dodonaea angustifolia.G5, Sporobolus spicatus, Cynodon dactylon alkaline grasslands.Seasonally flooded areas of high alkalinity on the north, west and southern shores of the lake are dominated by these soda-resistant short grasses. The meadows are interspersed with sand bars, mud flats and patches of sedges (Cyperus laevigatus ).Table-2. Species of every stratum which have been recorded as dominant during survey in each habitat and vegetation type. The latter are listed in the order in which they appear in table 1. Dominance is not consistent within habitats.Life formSpeciesVegetation type codesTreesAcacia gerrardii B3a, 3dAcacia hockii W2, LOVAcacia seyal W2, LOVAcacia xanthophloea G1, 4, 7, B3b, 3d, W1, F1, RV, SIVCordia ovalis B3c, F1, 3Cussonia holstii B3a, F3Dombeya burgessiae F3, RVEuphorbia candelabrum B3a, 3c, 3d, F2Tarchonanthus camphoratus B3a, b, c, dTeclea simplicifolia F1, 2, 3Olea africana F3ShrubsAspilia mossambicensis B2, 3b, F3, CEV, LOVCapparis tomentosa W1, LOVGrewia similis B3c, F1, 2, 3, RVHibiscus calyphyllus F2, 3, RVLippia ukambensis W2, B3cMaerua triphylla G3, F3, RVMaytenus heterophylla B3c, F3, RVOcimum gratissimum B2, 3b, 3d, F1, CEVPluchea bequaertii B1, F1, SMPsiadia punctulata B3b, 3c, 3d, CEVPterolobium stellatum F1, 2, 3Rhus natalensis G4, B3c, W2, F3, RVRicinus communis F1, RV, SIVTarchonanthus camphoratus G4, B3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, F3Tinnaea aethiopicum B3c, LOVHerbsAchyranthes aspera F1, 2, RVAloe lateritia var. solaiana B3c, LOVHypoestes verticillaris F1, 2, RVSolanum incanum B3d, RVUrtica massaica F1, RVGrassesChloris gayana G1, 4, 6, B3b, SMCynodon dactylon G5, B1, SMCynodon nlemfuensis G1, 2, 3, 6, 7, B2, 3c, W1, 2, CEVCyperus laevigatus G5, B1Digitaria abyssinica G2, 3, 4, 6, 7Pennisetum procerum CEV, LOVPennisetum squamulatum CEV, LOVRhynchelytrum repens CEV, LOVSporobolus spicatus G5, B1, SMThemeda triandra G1, 6, B3b, 3c, LOVG6, Cynodon mixed grasslandsThese are mosaics of Cynodon nlemfuensis with other grass associates (Chloris gayana, Digitaria abyssinica, Themeda triandra) with varying dominance. They occupy somewhat intermediate positions in the sequence, the western types having scattered trees, while the southern stands have a few high shrubs including Maerua triphylla, Cordia ovalis, Maytenus heterophylla and Tarchonanthus camphoratus. The eastern examples of this grassland have no woody component.G7, Cynodon nlemfuensis-Acacia xanthophloea grasslandThese are mainly found in the south, particularly on the Nderit and Makalia Plains. They contain conspicuous stands of Acacia xanthophloea with scattered high shrubs (Cassia didymobotrya, Maerua triphylla, Maytenus heterophylla, Rhus natalensis ). The short Cynodon always forms over 90% of the cover.BushlandsThis term is used for woody plant associations with a canopy less than six metres in height (except for occasional emergents) with a cover of over 20%. Bushland forms the most extensive vegetation in the park, much of it attaining the density of thickets where Tarchonanthus camphoratus is the principal shrub species (B3). However, low shrub associations can also be identified.B1, Pluchea bushlandsThese occupy marginal alkaline areas of lacustrine sediments, impeded drainage and clay-loam soils. The stands are occasionally flooded and are conspicuous along most of the lake shore except the western part. The soda-resistant Pluchea bequaertii is most abundant, with Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus laevigatus and Sporobolus spicatus contributing to the ground cover. Occasional flooding with saline water kills invading Acacia xanthophloea, so that populations of this tree are always young.B2, Psiadia-Aspilia bushlandsThe vegetation of lowland colluvial deposits along the foot of Lion Hill and the western escarpment is characterised by dense low shrubs of Psiadia punctulata, Aspilia mossambicense and Ocimum gratissimum. There are a few scattered trees and high shrubs.B3, Tarchonanthus camphoratus bushlandsThese bushlands are the main vegetation type of the Park hinterland, and can be divided into sub-types with respect to associated tree species.Tarchonanthus-Acacia gerrardii (B3a) occurs on Lion Hill's ridges, faulted valleys and steep slopes. Tarchonanthus camphoratus dominates the shrub-layer with over 80% cover. Acacia gerrardii and Cussonia holstii are frequent, especially on the ridges and slopes, while the colluvial soils of the valleys have fewer trees. A few weeks before the start of this study, August 1987, a wildfire destroyed the shrubland on the northern section of Lion Hill, leaving live stumps of Tarchonanthus camphoratus which showed signs of vegetative regeneration.Tarchonanthus-Acacia xanthophloea Bushland (B3b) is found on the western Mau escarpment. The Acacia density increases on the ridges and slopes, with the umbelliferous Steganotaenia araliacea appearing where the Tarchonanthus camphoratus is thickest. On the plateau there are more trees in what might be called a wooded bushland.Tarchonanthus-Euphorbia candelabrum Bushland (B3c) grows on the south-eastern Soysambu plains of the Park, where there are superficial volcanic deposits over diatomaceous sediments and well-drained soils. The trees of the succulent Euphorbia disappear gradually to the west and north leaving pure Tarchonanthus. The latter thins out due to illegal firewood harvesting towards the east and southern margins of the Park. Where this has occurred there is a dense cover of Cordia ovalis, Grewia similis and Tinnea aethiopica with a closed stand of juvenile Euphorbia candelabrum.Mixed Tarchonanthus (B3d) is a narrow vegetation belt along the western border from Nganyoi Ranger Post to Pwani Ranger Post. It seems to form a mosaic with Olea forest (F3). Trees associated with Tarchonanthus are mixed Euphorbia candelabrum, Acacia xanthophloea and Acacia gerrardii.WoodlandsThese are defined, following Pratt and Gwynne (1977), as a stand of trees up to 20 m high, with open or continuous but not thickly interlaced canopy of over 20% cover. Shrubs, if present, contribute under 10% of the canopy cover. By this definition the Acacia xanthophloea stands on the Lake shoreline are here designated as woodlands, although they were previously called forests.W1, Acacia xanthophloea woodlandThis occurs in a zone around the shoreline, being more widely spread on the north and south. The Acacia is tall (25 m) and there is little shrub layer, while the ground cover is dense with many climbers. The more frequent shrubs are Cassia bicapsularis and Vernonia auriculifera, while the ground cover is mainly Achyranthes aspera and Solanum incanum with Urtica massaica in the Njoro section of the woodland.Between the Wildlife Clubs of Kenya Hostel and the Main Gate there is no shrub layer and even the clumps of lianas (Grewia similis, Rhus natalensis, Senecio lyratipartitus for example) are few.W2, Acacia seyal woodlandFound on only one of the ridges west of the Naishi sub-headquarters, this is characterised by a lack of shrub layer, dense individuals of Acacia seyal and Acacia hockii, and poor ground cover.ForestsThese are defined as continuous stands of trees with canopy which varies from 10-40 m high, with two or more storeys. The upper canopy is interlaced (Pratt & Gwynne, 1977). Three forest types are recognised here.F1, Acacia xanthophloea forestThis name is given to small patches of thicker timber within the W1 woodland. It is more prominent at Pelican Corner and at Kampi ya Nyuki in the north east of the Park where there are alien trees of Eucalyptus citriodora, Grevillea robusta and Schinus molle as well as the indigenous Warburgia ugandensis. Shrubs are dense and include Erythroeocca bongensis, Grewia bicolor, Grewia similis, Pluchea bequaertii and Rhus natalensis.At Pelican Corner the forest ('Colobus Forest') is richer and less disturbed, with shrubs of Hibiscus calyphyllus, Pluchea bequaertii, Rhus natalensis and Teclea simplicifolia, and the scrambling 'Wait a bit' Pterolobium stellatum.F2, Euphorbia candelabrum forestThis vegetation is very natural and well-preserved, occurring on steep basalt slopes and ridges. With the dense Euphorbia are Acacia xanthophloea, Cussonia holstii and Obetia pinnatifida. There is a rich shrub flora, while the herbs are dominated by Hypoestes verticillaris and Achyranthes aspera.F3, Olea africana forestThis is an important intact fragment of the Kenya dry Highland Oleaceous forest, protected by the state even before the creation of the National Park. The closed canopy is mainly Cussonia holstii, Euclea divinorum, Olea africana and Teclea simplicifolia. High shrubs are Cordia ovalis, Grewia similis, Maytenus heterophyllus, Tarchonanthus camphoratus. There is a rich flora of lianas and herbs which, perhaps significantly, includes succulents such as Notonia hildebrandtii, Plectranthus cylindraceus, Sarcostemma viminale, Sansevieria parva, Senecio petitianus. Ground cover percentage is low.Alkaline MarshesSM, sedge marshesThese are waterlogged areas on alluvium along the northern and eastern shores of the lake. They are periodically flooded, and the vegetation is poor and dominated by Cyperus laevigatus.Fresh water swampsSV, Swamp vegetationWhere fresh water enters the Lake, particularly where the Nderit River enters the south-east end, there is a special swamp vegetation. The dominant plants in the various phases of a mosaic are Cyperus immensus, Cyperus laevigatus and Typha domingensis, with emergent low shrubs of Pluchea bequaertii and Sesbania sesban.Basalt cliffs and rocky slopesCEV, Open rock vegetationThese areas of basaltic cliffs and escarpments carry an open, mixed form of B3, Tarchonanthus Bushland without indicator species except possibly the trees Ficus thoningii and F. wakefieldii, the succulent shrub Tetradenia multiflora and the grass Pennisetum squamatum.Lava outcropsLOV, Lava outcrop vegetationThese landforms support characteristic undifferentiated vegetation which is treated separately here. On Honeymoon Hill the low shrub Aspilia mossambicensis dominates, with much of the succulent Aloe secundiflora.On the western slopes there is a dense wooded bushland dominated by the shrubs of Acacia seyal, Clerodendrum myricoides, Heteromorpha trifoliata, Maytenus heterophyllus and Rhus natalensis.Buffalo Hill holds thick Tarchonanthus bush (B3) with scattered trees of Ficus thonningii, F. wakefieldii and Ziziphus mucronata.The lava ridges on Nakuru Lodge Hill again display dense Tarchonanthus bush (B3) but this time with Acacia seyal, A. xanthophloea, Euphorbia candelabrum and Ficus cordata.River banksRV, Riverine vegetationAlong the flood plains and river banks rich, often unique, vegetation types develop, often with one or more plants of special interest and abundant forest edge species such as lianas. Here only the outstanding features of such stands are noted.Larmudiac River to the north west forms a floodplain immediately it enters the park which is frequently flooded during the wet season and supports a rich vegetation with dense undergrowth similar to F1.The Njoro River, while enclosed with Acacia xanthophloea forest (F1), has the figs Ficus cordata, Ficus sur and Ficus thonningii along its course. The vegetation of the Naishi dry river system to the south west is rather similar but less diverse.The Makalia River has a falls complex which is mixed F1 and F2 as described earlier but downstream the tree species are more diverse, with Acacia albida, A. xanthophloea, Albizia gummifera, Ehretia cymosa, Ekebergia capensis, Euclea divinorum and Salix subserrata.The vegetation of the Nderit River to the south-east is characterised by a stand of Acacia albida and A. abyssinica trees and very few lianas.Sewage-influenced vegetationSV, Nutrient enriched vegetationAn exuberant vegetation can be found in the north where green vegetable farmers were utilising the sewage catchment illegally until 1986. This habitat is characterised by a high diversity of shrub species.Floristic SurveyOver 575 plant species are listed in the appendix, including some taxa for which specific epithets are not yet available. The major groups in which these plants are placed may be summarised as follows:GroupNumber of familiesNumber of generaNumber of speciesPteridophytes368Dicotyledons73257459Monocotyledons1247111Total88310578In all cases an attempt has been made to be as conservative as possible in family, genus and species delimitation. For instance some interpretations of the Monocotyledon classification recognise many more families than are reported here.The most diverse families were the legumes with 57 speciers (Leguminosae-comprising the Caesalpinaceae 5, the Mimosaceae 10 and the Papilionaceae 42), the grasses (Gramineae or Poaceae) with 50, and the sunflower family (Compositae or Asteraceae) with 40 (Table 3).Table 3. An analysis of plant family representation in Lake Nakuru National Park compared with the total flora of East Africa as given in Blundell (1987).FamilyNumber of SpeciesPercentage %NakuruEast AfricaAcanthaceae173904.4Compositae408774.6Euphorbiaceae184943.4Gramineae508605.8Labiatae262889.1Leguminosae5712204.7Malvaceae2613719.0Rubiaceae177412.3Solanaceae146521.5DISCUSSIONVegetation SurveyThe vegetation of Lake Nakuru National Park falls under the eco-climatic zone IV of Pratt and Gwynne (1977) which describes it as wooded and bushed grassland. Earlier ecologists recognised six habitats in the Park (Vaucher, 1973; Kutilek, 1974; Kakuyo, 1980), but the present paper describes ten, some with several vegetation types.The main aim of this study was to describe the overall vegetation variation in Nakuru National Park. The results show a wide range of identifiable habitats and vegetation zones, some 24 in all. This high diversity arises from the geological complexity of the area.There are basically four vegetation systems, grassland, bushlands, woodlands and forests. It is difficult to apply the term 'forest' to the closed stands of Euphorbia candelabrum and Acacia xanthophloea on the southern slopes of Lion Hill and the periphery of the lake respectively, but the term was strictly defined and was useful in order to distinguish these stands from the rest of the open woodlands. In my opinion it is only the Olea forest (F3) that can be regarded as a true dry evergreen forest with some resemblance to those of Nairobi and the Coast (Lind & Morrison, 1974).Comparison of the grassland types (fig. 4, G1 to G7) shows the low species diversity for those stands near the alkaline Lake (G2, G5) and high diversity inland (G3, G6, G7) with intermediates. The same is observed for bushlands where B1 and B2 are shoreline stands while B3, far from the Lake, has the highest diversity. There is thus an increasing trend in diversity away from the Lake (Mutangah, 1989).The three forests are moderate in diversity, particularly that of low shrubs in F1 and F2 where they form a dens understorey. Acacia xanthophloea woodland and forest (W1 and F1) have a lower diversity of tree species than other types and research is needed to discover whether this Acacia species inhibits establishment of other tree species.The distribution of leguminous plants is also demonstrated in figure 4. These plants were found to occur mainly in the grassland and bushland habitats away from the influence of the Lake. The absence of leguminous plants in the forests (which are also away from the Lake) need further investigation to establish the controlling distribution mechanism of these plants.Figure 4: Species numbers in each lifeform within vegetation types as described in the text and table 1. T: trees more than 3 m in height; HS: high multi-stemmed shrubs more than 2 m high; LS: shrubs up to 2 m; F: forbs, broad-leaved perennial or annual herbs; G: gramminoids and sedgesFigure 4 (continued)Finally, from the floristic spectrum point of view, and based on the data presented here, the vegetation of Nákuru National Park can be summarised as wooded bushland with patches of open grasslands rather than as generalised wooded grassland, as concluded from physiognomic analysis by Pratt and Gwynne (1977).Floristic SurveyThe simplest method of recording floristic information for a given area is by enumeration of the species composition in the form of a species list. The plant check-list can then become a useful point of reference for farther studies especially those designed to asses the presence and dominance of plant species forming diet of a particular animal species. Such information is vital in the formulation of Park's conservation status and management optionsIt is interesting to note that, amongst the families that have most species in the flora of the Park, two contribute significantly to the flora of East Africa as estimated by Blundell (1987) and shown on table 3. These are the Solanaceaee and the Malvaceae, which perhaps are particularly adapted to the climatic and edaphic environment of this area. Conversely the two families, Euphorbiaceae and Rubiaceae are seen to have been comparatively under-represented as would have been expected from this region.Figure 5 demonstrates a sharp decline of the frequency (number of species) curve from species occurring in one or two habitats to that found in three or more habitats. The majority of the species have their distribution limited up to three· habitats only out of the twenty four habitats investigated. This is a normal result for this type of analysis (Williams, 1964). Any other pattern of distribution might cast into doubt the vegetation type and habitat delimitation used here. The limited ecological range of distribution or narrow species niche width also requires more investigations to ascertain whether perhaps is a consequence of the great landscape and habitat diversity in this area.It may be of interest to discuss which is the richest vegetation type in the Park. LOV and RV have the greatest number of species, but neither is a single habitat type but rather a composition of many, differing in topography, ecology and floristics. For example RV comprises five riverine systems: Makalia, Njoro, Nderit, Larmudiac and Naishi. They all differ in drainage patterns and flora composition but for the convenience of vegetation classification the five have been put together under RV (Riverine Vegetation). Taking single unit vegetation types, the richest are the bushlands: B3a, 3b and B3c, and next the grasslands: G1, 6, 3 and G7 respectively. The woodlands and shoreline habitat have the poorest diversity in the study area.Figure 5: Frequency of species occurring in various combinations of the 24 vegetation types delimited in Lake Nakuru National ParkACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI am very grateful to Prof. J.O. Kokwaro for his help and support during this research. Dr Andrew Agnew read the manuscript of this paper and provided criticisms and discussions for which I thank him. Dr Glyn Davies kindly allowed me to prepare this paper with the facilities of the Kenya Indigenous Forest Conservation Project. I would also like to thank the Directors of National Museums of Kenya (NMK) and Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) for their kind financial and material contribution towards this work.I am greatly thankful for the financial and material help I received from The National Council for Science and Technology, WWF, the East African Wild Life Society (EAWLS), Regional Centre For Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, and finally UNEP (GEMS) and in particular Dr Michael Gwynne who provided encouragement for the project as a whole, and introduced me to P. Loth who made many methodological inputs into the field work. I am very grateful to both these scientists.The East African Herbarium (EA) and the University of Nairobi Herbarium (UON) provided identification facilities. I am sincerely grateful to the Staff of these two botanical Institutions. In particular I am indebted to Mr. Stephen Rucina (EA) for his active participation in the field surveys, Mr E.K. Kirrika (EA) for plant identification and Mr. Onesmus M. Mwangangi (UON) who kindly allowed me to use his field records, and helped considerably in the preparation of the species list.REFERENCESAgnew, A.D.Q. (1974). Upland Kenya Wild Flowers. Oxford University Press, London.Agnew, A.D.Q. & S. Agnew (1994). Upland Kenya Wild Flowers. Second Edition. East African Natural History Society, Nairobi.Beentje, H. J. (1994). Kenya Trees, Shrubs and Lianes. National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi.Blundell, M. (1987). Collins Guide to the Wild Flowers of East Africa. Collins, London.Clayton, W.D. (1970, 1974, 1982). Gramineae Parts I, II and III. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Crown Agents for Overseas Governments and Administration, London and A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.Dale, I.R. & P.J. Greenway (1961). Kenya Trees and Shrubs. Buchanan's Kenya Estates Ltd, Nairobi.Grundblatt, J., W.K. Ottichilo & R.K. Sinange (1989). A hierarchical approach to vegetation classification in Kenya. Afri. J. Ecol. 27: 45-51.Haines, R. W. & K. A. Lye (1983). The Sedges and Rushes of East Africa. East African Natural History Society, Nairobi.Kakuyo, K.Y.B. (1980). The effect of translocation of Rothschild's Giraffes from Lewa Downs farm to Lake Nakuru National Park. MSc Thesis, Zoology Department, University of Nairobi.Kutilek, M.J. (1974). The density and biomass of large mammals in Lake Nakuru National Park. East African Wildlife Journal 12: 201-212.Lind, E.M. & M.E.S. Morrison (1974). East African Vegetation. Longman, London.Loth, P.E., & H.H.Th. Prins (1986). Spatial patterns of the Landscape and Vegetation of Lake Manyara National Park. ITC Journal 2: 166-130.Mabberley, D.J. (1987). The Plant Book.: a portable dictionary of higher plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.McCall, G.J.H. (1967). Geology of Nakuru: Thompson's Fall - Lake Hannington area. Ministry of Natural Resources, Geological Survey of Kenya, Nairobi.Mutangah, J.G. (1989). Composition, Structure and Distribution of Plant Communities in Lake Nakuru National Park. MSc. Thesis, Botany Department, University of Nairobi.Pratt, D.J. & M.D. Gwynne (1977). Rangeland Management and Ecology in East Africa. Hodder and Stoughton, London.Vaucher, C.A. (1973). Nakuru. The Lake of a Million Flamingos, World Wildlife Fund, Zurich.Williams, C.B. (1964). Patterns in the balance of nature, and related problems in quantitative biology. Academic Press, London.APPENDIX: CHECK-LIST OF THE PLANTS OF NAKURU NATIONAL PARKSpecies are listed in alphabetical order of families and genera within each of three Orders, I. PTERIDOPHYTES, II. DICOTYLEDONS and III. MONOCOTYLEDONS.Species are assigned vegetation and habitat types according to the list and circumscription in Table 1. The 24 vegetation units and their mnemonics used here are given below in alphabetical order. The initial letter of the habitat type is not repeated in the enumeration under each species. Thus if a species has been found in all forest types these are listed as F1, 2, 3.Nomenclature follows Agnew and Agnew (1995), Beentje (1994), Clayton (1970, 1974, 1982) and Haines and Lye (1983).I. PTERIDOPHYTESADIANTACEAEActiniopteris semiflabellata Pic.Ser.: CEV, LOVAdiantum thalictroides Schlecht.: RVDoryopteris consolor (Langsd. & Fisch.) Kuhn: RVPellaea adiantoides (Willd.) J.Sm.: LOVPellaea involuta (Swartz) Bak.Pellaea viridis (Forsk.) Prantl: F2, CEV, LOVASPLENIACEAEAsplenium aethiopicum (Burm.f.) BechererSELAGINACEAESelaginella caffrorum (Milde) Hieron.II. DICOTYLEDONSACANTHACEAEAsystasia mysorensis (Roth) Anders: B3b, F1, 3, G6, W1Barleria micrantha C.B.CI.Barlefia submollis Lindau: F3Barleria ventricosa Nees: B3bDyschθriste nagchana (Nees) Bennet: B2, B3a, 3b, CEV, G1, 3,6Dyschoriste radicans NeesDicliptera colorata C.B.CI.Hypoestes forskahlii (Vahl) R.Br.: B2, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, F1, 2, 3, G1, 3, 4, 6, 7,LOV, W2Justicia calyculata. Anders: B1, 2, 3a, 3b, 3c, G1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, LOV, RVJusticia flava Vahl: B3a, F1, 2, 3, G7, LOV, RVJusticia heterocarpa T.Anders: B3c, G4, 6, F1, 2, 3, CEV, RV, W1Justicia anagalloides (Nees) T.AndersJusticia striata Bullock: F3Monechma debile (Forsk.) Nees: B2, 3b, 3c, G1, 2, 3, 6, 7, LOV, W2Monothecium glandulosum Hochst.: F3Phaulopsis imbricata (Forsk.) Sweet: RVThunbergia alata Sims: F3AIZOACEAEDelosperma nakurense (Engl.) Herre: LOVGisekia pharnaceoides L.Zaleya pentandra (L.) Jeffrey: G3AMARANTHACEAEAchyranthes aspera L.: B2, B3a, 3b, 3d, CEV, G1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, F1, 2, 3, LOV, RV, SIV, W1, 2Aerva lanata (L.) Juss.: B2, 3a, 3b, 3d, G1, 3, 4, 6, 7, F3, LOV, W2Alternanthera pungens Kunth.Amaranthus sp.Amaranthus spinosus L.: RV, SIV, W1Amaranthus hybridus L.: G3, SIVCelosia anthelminthica Asch.: B3b,3d, F1, RV, W1Cyathula cylindrica Moq.: F1, F3, LOV, RV, SIV, W1Cyathula uncinulata (Schrad.) SchinzCyathula sp. LOVPupalia lappacea (L.) A.Juss.: G7, CEVANACARDIACEAERhus natalensis Krause: B1, 2, 3a, 3b, 3d, CEV, F1, 2, 3, G1, 4, 6, 7, LOV, RV, W1, W2Schinus molle L.: F1, G4, RV, SIV, W1Schinus terebinthifolius RaddiAPOCYNACEAELandolphia buchananii (Hall.f.) StapfCarissa edulis (Forsk.) Vahl: B3a, RVARALIACEAECussonia holstii Engl.: B2, 3a,3b, 3c, 3d, CEV, F1, 2, 3, G6, RVASCLEPIADAGEAEPachycymbium dummeri (N.E.Br.) GilbertCynanchum tetrapteru (Turcz) R.A.Dyer: B2, F1, W1Cynanchum altiscandens K.Schum.: CEV, F1, 2, SIV, W1Cynanchum hastifolium N.E.Br.Dregea schimperi (Decne.) Bullock: RV, W1Gomphocarpus fruticosus (L.) Ait.f.: G5, SVGomphocarpus integer (N.E.Br.) Bullock: SVGomphocarpus semilunatus A.Rich.Gomphocarpus stenophyllus Oliv.: B3aPeriploca linearifolia Dill. & A.Rich.: F1, RV, SIV, W1Pergularia daemia (Forsk.) Chiov.: F1, RV, SIV, W1Sarcostemma viminale R.Br.: B2, 3a, 3b, 3c, CEV, F1, 2, 3, RVBASELLACEAEBasella alba L.: F3, RVBORAGINACEAECordia ovalis R.Br.: B2, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, CEV, F1, 2, 3, G3, 6, 7, LOV, RV, W1, 2Cynoglossum coeruleum DC.Ehretia cymosa Thonn.: RV, W1Heliotropium longiflorum (A.DC.) Jaub. & Spach ssp undulatiom (Turrill) Verdc.: B3b, 3d, G1, 3, 6Heliotropium steudneri VatkeBUXACEAENotobuxus obtusifolia Mildbr.CACTACEAEOpuntia exaltata BergerOpuntia sp.: B1, 3d, G6, LOV, RVCAMPANULACEAEWahlenbergia abyssinica (A.Rich.) ThulinCANELLACEAEWarburgia ugandensis Sprague: F1, 2, 3, RV, SIV, W1CAPPARACEAECapparis fascicularis DC.: W1Capparis tomentosa Lam.: B3c, CEV, F1, G3, 4, 6, 7, RV, W1Gynandropsis gynandra (L.) Briq.: G3, 6, 7Maerua triphylla A.Rich.: B3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, CEV, F1, 2, 3, G3, 4, 6, 7, LOV, RV, W1,2CARYOPHYLLACEAEDianthus sp. = Mwangangi 442Drymaria cordata (L.) Roem. & Schult.Pollichia campestris Ait.Polycarpaea eriantha A.Rich.Silene macrosolen A.Rich.: LOVCHENOPODIACEAEAtriplex semibaccata R.Br.: B3a, G7, W1Chenopodium album L.: LOV, W2Chenopodium fasciculosum Aellen: G7Chenopodium murale L.Chenopodium opulifolium Kock. & Ziz.: CEVChenopodium procerum Moq.: CEVChenopodium schraderanum Schult.COMBRETACEAECombretum illairii Engl.: B3aCOMPOSITAEAgeratum conyzoides L.: RVArtemisia afra Willd.: G4Aspilia mossambicensis (Oliv.) Willd: B2, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, CEV, F2, 3, G6, LOV, RV, W2Aspilia pluriseta Schweinf. ssp plurisetaBerkheya spekeana Oliv.Bidens flagellata (Sherff) MesfinBidens pilosa L.: B3c, 3d, CEV, F1, 3, G5, W1Laggera alata Sch. Bip.: G1 G6, W1Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten.: SM, SVConyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq.: G4, RV, SVConyza pedunculata (Oliv.) Wild: F3Conyza schimperi A.Rich.Conyza steudelii A.Rich:. B3bConyza stricta Willd.: G1, 5, 6, SVConyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E.H. WalkerConyza tigrensis Oliv. & Hiern.: G4, 5,6, SVCotula abyssinica A.Rich.Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S.MooreCrassocephalum montuosum (S.Moore) Milne-Redh.Crassocephalum picridifolium (DC.) S.Moore: SVCrassocephalum vitellinum (Benth.) S.Moore: CEV, F1, SIV, W1Crassocephalum sarcobasis (DC.) S.MooreChrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Pers.Dichrocephalain egrifolia O.Ktze.Echinops amplexicaulis Oliv.Bothriocline longipes (Oliv. & Hiern) N.E.Br.Felicia abyssinica A.Rich.: B3b G3Felicia muricata (Thunb.) Nees: B2, 3b, 3d, G6, LOVGalinsoga parvifolia Cav.: RV, SIV, W1Galinsoga urticifolia (Kunth) Benth.Gutenbergia cordifolia Oliv.: B2, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, CEV, F1, 2, 3, G1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, RV, SM, W1,2Gutenbergia rueppellii Sch.Bip.: G2Gynura scandens O.Hoffm.: F3, RVHelichrusum forskahlii (J.F.Gmel) Hilliard & BurttHelichrusum foetida (L.) Moench.Helichrysum glumaceum DC.: G1Helichrysum odoratissimum (L.) Less.: G1Hirpicium diffusum (O.Hoffm.) Roess: G2, LOVLactuca inermis Forsk.: G1, 7Melanthera scandens (Schum. & Thonn.) RobertsMicroglossa angolensis Oliv. & Hiern.Notonia nr. hildebrandtii Vatke: B3a, 3d, F3, LOV, RVNotonia petraea R.E.FriesOsteospermum vaillantii (Decne) T.Norl: LOVPluchea bequaertii Robyns: B1, CEV, F1, G4, 5, 6, SM, SV, W1Pluchea nitens O.Hoffm.: LOVPluchea ovalis DC.: W1Pseudognaphalium undulatum (L.) Hilliard & BurttPseudognaphalium luteo-album (L.) Hilliard & Burtt: RVPsiadia punctulata (DC.) Vatke: B2, 3b, 3c, CEV, F2, 3, G3, 4, 7, LOV, RV, W1, 2Richardia tingitana (L.) RothSchkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Thell.: G1, 4Emilia discifolius (Oliv.) C.Jeffrey: B1, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, F3, G1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, LOV, SM, SV, W2Senecio lyratus Forsk.: RV SIV, W1Senecio mesogrammoides O.Hoffm.: G4, 5, SMSenecio hadiens Forsk.: B1, 2, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, CEV, F1, 2, 3, G4, 6, 7, LOV, RV, W1,2Senecio ruwensoriensis S.MooreSolanecio mannii (Hook.f.) C.Jeffrey: F2, W1Sphaeranthus suaveolens (Forsk.) D.C.Acmella calirhiza Del.: RVTagetes minuta L.: B1, 2, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, CEV, F1, 3, G2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, LOV, RV, SIV, W1Tagetes patula L.: G1Tarchonanthus camphoratus L.: B1, 2, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, CEV, F1, 3, G1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, LOV, RV, W2Vernonia auriculifera Hiern.: F1, RV, SIV, W1Vernonia brachycalyx O.Hoffm.: F2, 3Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less.: F2Vernonia galamensis (Cass.) Less.: F1, G7, SIV, SM, W1Vernonia adoensis Walp.Vernonia holstii O.Hoffm.Vernonia karaguensis Oliv & Hiern.Vernonia lasiopus O.Hoffm.: G6Xanthium pungens Wallr.CONVOLVULACEAEAstripomoea grantii (Vatke) Verde.Cuscuta australis R.Br.Cuscuta campestris YunckerCuscuta kilimanjari Oliv.Cuscuta planiflora TenoreConvolvulus siculus L.Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet: B1, RV, SIV, SVIpomoea polymorpha Roem. & SchultesIpomoea wightii (Wall.) Choisy: SIVIpomoea sp. nr sinensis (Desr.) ChoisyIpomoea kituiensis Vatke: G3, 6CRASSULACEAECrassula volkensii Engl.Kalanchoe densiflora Rolfe: B3b, 3d, CEV, F3, RV, SIV, W1Kalanchoe lanceolata (Forsk.) Pers.: B3b, CEV, F1, G4, RV, W1Kalanchoe laciniata (L.) DC.: CEV, SIVCRUCIFERAECrambe kilimandscharica O.E.SchulzCrambe hispanica L.Erucastrum arabicum Fisch. & Mey: G1, 2, 3, 6Farsetia stenoptera Hochst.: B3a, CEVFarsetia undulicarpa JohnsellLepidium bonariense L.: SMRaphanus raphanistrum L.CUCURBITACEAECoccinia adoensis (A.Rich.) Cogn.: LOVCoccinia trilobata (Cogn.) C.Jeffrey: F3Cucumella engleri (Gilg.) C.JeffreyCucumis aculeatus Cogn.: G1, 2Cucumis ficifolius A.Rich.Gerrardianthus lobatus (Cogn.) C.JeffreyKedrostis foetidissima (Jacq.) Cogn.Kedrostis hirtella (Naud.) Cogn.: B3cLagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley: SIVMomordica foetida Schum.: RV, W1Peponium vogelii (Hook. f.) Engl.: CEV, F2, 3Zehneria scabra (L.f.) Sond.: B3b, RV, SIV, W1 Zehneria minutiflora C.JeffreyDIPSACACEAEPterocephalus frutescens Hochst.EBENACEAEEuclea divinorum Hiern.: B3a, 3b, 3d, F1, 2, 3, RVEUPHORBIACEAEClutia abyssinica Jaub. & Spach.Croton dichogamus Pax: B3b, 3c, CEV, F3, G6Croton macrostachyus Del.Croton megalocarpus Hutch.: SIV W1Erythrococca bongensis Pax: B2, 3b, 3c, CEV, F1, 2, 3, G1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, LOV, RVEuphorbia candelabrum Kotschy: B1, 2, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, CEV, F2, G6, LOV, RVEuphorbia crotonoides Boiss.: B3a, LOVEuphorbia depauperata Hochst.Euphorbia gossypina PaxEuphorbia hirta L.Euphorbia inaequilatera Sond.: B3c, G1, 2, 3, 4, LOVEuphorbia magnicapsula S.Carter: F2Euphorbia schimperiana ScheelePhyllanthus maderaspatensis L.Phyllanthus rotundifolius Willd.Ricinus communis L.: F1, G7, RV, SIV, W1Tragia brevipes PaxTragia insuavis PrainFLACOURTIACEAEDovyalis abyssinica L.Dovyalis caffra (Hook.f. & Harv.) Warb.: F1, G1, RV, W1Scolopia theifolia Gilg.GERANIACEAEGeranium ocellatum CambessMonsonia angustifolia A.Rich.: B3aPelargonium quinquelobatum A.Rich.: B3a, LOVHYPERICACEAEHyericum annulatum Moris.Hypericum roeperanum A.Rich.LABIATAE (LAMIACEAE)Becium obovatum (E.Mey.) M.E.Br.: B3a, 3c, G3, 6, LOVEndostemon camporum (Guerke) AshbyFuerstia africana T.C.E.Fr.: B3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, G1, 2, LOVTetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd: CEV, F2, LOVLeonotis nepetifolia (L.) Ait.f.: B1, 3a, 3b, 3d, F1 3, G1, 3, 4, 6, 7, LOV, RV, SIV, W1Leucas martinicensis Vahl: B3a, 3b, CEV, G1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, LOV, SMLeucas glabrata (Vahl) R.Br.: B3b, 3d, CEV, G7, LOV, RVLeucas grandis Vatke: CEV, RVLeucas neuflizeana CourtLeucas venulosa Bak,Ocimum americana L.: B2, 3a, 3b, CEV, G3, 6, LOVOcimum gratissimum L.: B2, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, CEV, F1, 2, 3, G1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, LOV, RV, SM, W1,2Plectranthus assurgens (Bak.) J.K.Morton: B3a, 3b, CEV, F2, 3, G1, 7, LOVPlectranthus comosus Sims: B3a, 3b, 3d, CEV, F2, 3, LOV, RVPlectranthus caninus Roth.: CEV, G7, CEV, LOVPlectranthus cylindraceus Benth.: B3a, 3b, CEV, F2, 3, LOV, RVPlectranthus pseudomarrubiodes R.H. WillemsPlectranthus kivuense Leb. & Touss.Plectranthus sp. nr. P. flaccidus A.Rich.Pycnostachys coerulea Hook.Pycnostachys deflexifolia Bak.: G1Pycnostachys umbrosa (Vatke) Perkins: LOVSatureia abyssinica (Benth.) Briq.Saturea punctata (Benth.) Briq.Satureia biflora (D.Don.) Benth.: B1, 3a, 3b, G4, 6Tinnea aethiopica Hook.f.: B2, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, CEV, F2, 3, G1, 4, 7, LOV, RV, W2LEGUMINOSAE subfam CAESALPINIOIDEAECassia bicapsularis L.: F1, SIV, W1Cassia didymobotrya Fres.: F1, G7, RV, SIVCassia hildebrandtii VatkeCassia mimosoides L.: B3a, G1Pterolobium stellatum (Forsk.) Brenan: CEV, F1, 2, 3, RV, W1LEGUMINOSAE subfam MIMOSOIDEAEAcacia abyssinica Benth.: RVAcacia albida Del.: G1, RVAcacia brevispica Harms: F3Acacia gerrardii Benth.: B2, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, CEV, F3, G1, 2, 6, 7, LOV, W2Acacia hockii De Willd.: B3a, G1, LOV, W2Acacia senegal (L.) Willd.: G3Acacia seyal Del.: B1, 2, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, CEV, Fl, 2, 3, G1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, LOV, RV, SM, SIV, W1, 2Acacia xanthophloea Benth.: Bl, 2, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, CEV, Fl, 2, 3, G1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, LOV, RV, SIV, SM, W1, 2Albizia gummifera (Gmel.) C.A.Sm.: RVEntada abyssinica A.Rich.LEGUMINOSAE subfam. PAPILIONOIDEAEAlysicarpus rugosus (Willd.) DC.Alysicarpus zeyheri Harv.Astragalus atropilosus (Hochst.) Bunge: G1, 7Calpurnia subdecandra (L'Herit.) Scheick.: Fl, W1Crotalaria agatiflora Schweinf.: G1, RV, W1Crotalaria deserticola Bak.: B3a, 3b, G1, 3, 4, 6Crotalaria incana. L.: B3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, F3, G2, 3, 4, 6, RV, W1Crotalaria sp. nr. greenwayi Bak.f.Crotalaria laburnifolia L.ssp laburnifolia L.Crotalaria lachnocarpoides Engl.Crotalaria pycnostachys Benth.Crotalaria spinosa Benth.Crotalaria vallicola Bak.f.: B3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, G1, 2, 3, 4, 6, LOVDesmodium tortuosum (Sw) DC.Dolichos sericeus E.Mey.ssp formosus (A.Rich) Verdc.Dolichos oliyeri Schweinf.Eriosema shirense Bak.f.Glycine wightii (W. & A) Verdc.Indigofera arrecta A.Rich.Indigofera costata Guill. & Perr.Indigofera bogdanii Gillett: B1, 2, 3a, 3b, 3d, CEV, G2, 3, 4, 6, 7, LOVIndigofera brevicalys Bak.f.: B3a, 3b, 3d, G1, 2, 4, 36v, RVIndigofera circinella Bak.f.Indigofera hochstetteri Bak.Indigofera masaiensis GillettIndigofera nairobiensis Bak.f.Indigofera tinctoria L.Indigofera spicata Forsk.Lotononis platycarpus (Viv.) Pic.Serm.Lotus becquertii BoutiqueLotus corniculatus L. var. eremanthus Chiov.Medicago laciniata (L.) Mill.: G6Rhynchosia elegans A.Rich.: B3a, 3b, G6Rhynchosia minima (L.) DC.: B3a, 3b, G1, 2, 3, 4, 6Sesbania goetzei Harms.Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr.: G5, RV, SM, SVTephrosia athiensis Bak. f.Tephrosia emeroides A.Rich.: B2, 3b, RVTrifolium rueppelianum Fres.: G4Trifolium semipilosum Fres.Vigna membranacea A.Rich.: B3c, F2, 3Vigna oblongifolia A.Rich.LINACEAELinum volkensii Engl.LOBELIACEAELobelia holstii Engl.LOGANIACEAEBuddleja polystachya Fres.: G7, RV, W1Nuxia congesta Fres.: B3a, G1LORANTHACEAEOdontella fischeri (Engl.) Danser: B3b, 3d, G4Odontella ugogensis ( Engl.) BallePhragmanthera rufescens (DC.) Balle: G7Tapinanthus zizyphifolius (Engl.) Danser: CEV, F3, LOVViscum tuberculatum A.Rich.: B3a, 3d, F3MALVACEAEAbutilon englerianum Ulbr.: B2, 3a, CEV, F1, G7, RV, SIV, W1, 2Abutilon fruticosum Guill. & Perr.Abutilon holstii Guerke: B3d, F1, 2, 3, G6, RV, SIVAbutilon longicuspe A.Rich.: B3a, F1, 3, G3, 4, 7, RV, SIVAbutilon mauritianum (Jacq.) Medic.Abutilon rehmannii Bak.f.: B2, 3a, 3b, CEV, G3, 7, LOVGossypium somalensis (Guerke) Hutch.Hibiscus aethiopicus L.Hibiscus aponeurus Sprague & Hutch.: B2, 3a, 3b, 3d, G1, 3, 4, LOV, RVHibiscus calyphyllus Cav.: F1, 3, CEV, LOV, RV, W1Hibiscus cannabinus L.: B1, G1, LOV, SMHibiscus diversifolius Jacq. SVHibiscus flavifolius Ubr.: B2, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, G3, 4, 6, 7, LOV, W2Hibiscus fuscus Garcke: B2, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, CEV, F1, 3, G1, 3, 4, 6, LOV, RV, W1, 2Hibiscus micranthus L.f.: B2, 3a, 3b, 3d, CEV, F1, 3, G1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, LOV, W1, 2Hibiscus vitifolius L.: B3a, 3b, 3d, CEV, F1, 3, G6, RVKosteletskya begoniifolia (Ulbr.) Ulbr.Malva parvifolia L.Malva verticillata L.Melhania ovata (Cav.) SprengPavonia patens (Andr.) Chiov.: B3b, 3c, 3d, CE, F1, 3, G1, 3, 6, 7, LOV, RV, SIVPavonia urens Cav.Sida ovata Forsk.Sida rhombifolia L.: RVSida schimperiana A.Rich.Sida tenuicarpa Vollen.: B3a, G1, 3, RVMELASTOMACEAEDissotis seegambiensis (Guill. & Perr.) TianaMELlACEAEEkebergia capensis Sparm.: RV, W1MENISPERMACEAEStephania abyssinica (Dill. & Rich.) Walp.: RV, SIV, W1MORACEAEFicus cordata Thunb.: LOV, RVFicus ingens Moq.Ficus sur Forsk.: LOV, RVFicus thonningii Blume: B3b, CEV, LOV, RVFicus wakefieldii Hutch.: CEV, F2, G6, LOV, RVMYRTACEAECallistemon speciosus (Sims) DC.Eucalyptus citriodora Hook.: F1, W1NYCTAGINACEAECommicarpus pedunculosus (A.Rich.) Cuf.: CEVCommicarpus plumbagineus (Cav.) Standley: B3a, 3b, 3c, F1, G3, 6, 7, LOV, SIV, W1OLEACEAEJasminum floribundum R.Br.Olea africana Thunb.: B2, 3a, 3c, 3d, F1, 2, 3, G6, RVSchrebera alata (Hochst.) Welw.: F3ONAGRACEAEOenothera rosea Ait.OROBANCHACEAEOrobanche minor SmithOXALIDACEAEOxalis corniculata L.PAPAVERACEAEArgemone mexicana L.PHYTOLACCACEAEPhytolacca dodecandra L'Herit.: F1, G3, 7, RV, SIV, W1PIPERACEAEPeperomia abyssinica Miq.: F2PLUMBAGINACEAEPlumbago zeylanica L.: CEV, LOV, W1POLYGALACEAEPolygala abyssinica Fres.Polygala albida Schinz var. angustifolia (Chod.) ExellPolygala erioptera DC.Polygala petitiana A.Rich.Polygala sphenoptera Fres.: B3a, 3b, 3c, LOV, G1POLYGONACEAEOxygonum sinuatum (Meisn.) Dammer: B3c, G3, 7, LOVPolygonum pulchrum BlumePolygonum salicifolium Willd.Polygonum senegalense Meisn.: CEV, G1, LOV, SVRumex usambarensis (Dammer) Dammer: LOVPORTULACACEAEPortulaca foliosa Ker-GawlPortulaca kermesna N.E.Br.: CEV, LOVPortulaca oleracea L.:LOV, G3Portulaca quadrifida L.PRIMULACEAEAnagallis arvensis L.PROTEACEAEGrevillea robusta A.Cunn.: F1, W1RANUNCULACEAEClematis brachiata Thunb.: F1. RV, W1RESEDACEAECaylusea abyssinica (Fres.) Fisch. & Mey.RHAMNACEAEHelinus integrifolius (Lam.) Kuntze: F2, 3, LOV, RVHelinus mystacinus (Ait.) E.MeyRhamnus staddo A.Rich.: B3a, F3, G6Scutia myrtina (Burm.f.) Kurz.: B3a, RV, WIZiziphus mucronata Willd.: B3b, G3, 7, LOV, RVROSACEAEAlchemilla kiwuensis Engl.Rubus niveus Thunb.: F1, W1RUBIACEAEAnthospermum herbaceum L.f.Canthium lactescens Hiern.: B3a, F2, RVGalium simense Fres.Galium spurium L.Kohautia coccinea Royle G1.Oldenlandia corymbosa L. B3a, G6Oldenlandia herbacea Roxb.Oldenlandia scopulorum Bullock: B3a, G1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, LOVOldenlandia wiedemannii K.Schum.Pentanisia ouranogyne S.Moore: B3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, G1, 2, 3, 6, LOVPentas longiflora Oliv.Pentas pubiflora S.MoorePentas zanzibarica (Kl.) Vatke: B3a, 3c, G1, 2, LOVPsydrax parviflora (Afz.) BridsonPsydrax schimperiana (A Rich.) Bridson: F2, 3, RVTarenna graveolens (S.Moore)Bremek: B3c, CEV, F2, 3, RVVangueria apiculata K. Schum.RUTACEAETeclea simplicifolia (Eng.) Verdoom: B2, 3b, 3c, 3d, CEV, F1, 2, 3, G7, RV, W1Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam.: F1, RV, W1SALICACEAESalix subserrata Willd.: F2, LOV, RVSANTALACEAEThesium schweinfurthii Engl.Osyris abyssinica A.Rich.SAPlNDACEAEDodonaea angustifolia L.f.: B1, 3b, F3, G3, 4, 6, LOVSCROPHULARIACEAECraterostigma hirsutum S.Moore: B3c, G1, 2Craterostigma plantagineum Hochst.: B3cCycnium tubulosum (L.f.) Engl.: B1, G4, 5Cycnium volkensii Engl.Hebenstretia angolensis RolfeLimosella africa Gluck.Cycnium volkensii Engl.Cycnium tubulosum (L.t:) Engl.Sopubia eminii Engl.Sobupia ramosa (Hochst.) Schweinf.Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) VatkeSOLANACEAEDatura stramonium L.: F3, G1, 3, RV, SIVLycium europaeum L.: CEV, G4, 7, W1Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn.Nicotiana glauca R.Grah.: F3, G1, RV, SIV, SM, SVPhysalis ixocarpa Homem.: SIV, W1Physalis peruviana L.: SIV, W1Solanum aculeastrum Dunal: SIVSolanum incanum L.: B1, 2, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, CEV, F1, 3, G1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, LOV, RV, SIV, Sm, W1, 2Solanum nigrum L.: G5, SIVSolanum mauense Bitter: SIVSolanum sesselistellatum BitterSolanum nakurense C.H.Wright: CEVSolanum sp. = Nattrass 1081Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal: B1, 2, 3b, Gl, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, F1, LOV, RV, SIVSTERCULEACEAEDombeya burgessiae Gerrard: B3a, 3b, 3d, CEV, F1, 2, 3, G6, 7, RV, SIV, W1Dombeya rotundifolia (Hochst.) Planch.: W1Melhania ovata (Cav.) Spreng.: B2, 3b, 3c, CEV, G1, 2, 3, 6, 7, LOV, RVMelhania velutina Forsk.: B3b, 3cTHYMELAEACEAEGnidia subcordata Meisn.: F3, RVTILIACEAEGrewia bicolor Juss.: B2, 3a, CEV, F1, 2, LOV, W2Grewia similis K.Schum.: B2, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, CEV, F1, 2, 3, G3, 4, 7, W1, 2Grewia trichocarpa A.Rich.: CEV, F1Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq.UMBELLIFERAEFerula communis L.: B3a.Heteromorpha trifoliata (Wendl.) Eckl. & Zeyh.: B3a, 3d, G1, 6, LOVHydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.Steganotaenia araliacea Hochst.: B3a, 3b, 3d, CEV, F2, G1, LOVURTICACEAEDroguetia debilis RendleGirardinia diversifolia (Link.) FriesLaportea aestuans (L.) ChewObetia pinnatifida Baker: B2, CEV, F1, 2, 3, RV, W1Urtica massaica Midbr.: CEV, F1, G6, 7, RV, SIV, W1VERBENACEAEClerodendron myricoides (Hochst.) Vatke: B3a, F3, G1 G3, LOVLantana camara L.: G1, SIV, W1Lantana rhodesiensis MoldenkeLantana tripylla L.: B3a, 3b, 3d, G1, 3, LOV, W1Lippia javanica (Burm.f.) Spreng: B3a, 3b, G1, 3Lippia kituiensis Vatke: B1, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, CEV, F2, 3, G1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, LOV, RV, W2Lippia woodii MoldenkePriva curtisiae Kobusk: B3b, 3c, G1, 2, 3, 6, 7Verbena bonariense L.: G3, 4, 7, RVVITACEAECyphostemma adenocaule (A.Rich.) Willd & Drum.Cyphostemma bambuseti (Gilg. & Brandt) Willd. & Drum.Cyphostemma nierense (Th.Fr.) Desc.: B3a, 3b, CEV, F2, LOV, RV, SIVCyphostemma nodiglandulosum (Th.Fr,jr.) Desc.: B3a, 3c, F2, 3, LOV, RVCyphostemma serpens (A.Rich.) Desc.: B3a, 3c, G3Rhoicissus tridentata (L.f.) Willd. & Drum.: B3cZYGOPHYLLACEAETribulus terrestris L.: G3, 7, SIVIII. MONOCOTYLEDONSAGAVACEAESansevìeria parva N.E.Br.: F3, RVSansevieria robusta N.E. Br.: B3c, F2, LOVSansevieria volkensii Guerke: RVAMARYLLIDACEAECrinum macowanii Bak.Crinum papillosum Nord.: G1Scadoxus multiflorus (Martyn) Raf.: B3c, CEV, LOVCOMMELINACEAECommelina fricana L.: B3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, F2, G1, 3, 4, 6, 7, LOVCommelina benghalensis L.: B3a, 3b, CEV, F1, 2, 3, G1, 2, 3, 6, 7, LOV, RV, SIV, W1Commelina forskaolii Vahl.Commelina reptans Brenan: B3a, 3b, 3c, CEV, Gl, 2, 3, 6, 7, LOVCyanotis arachoidea C.B.C1.CYPERACEAEBulbostylis boeckeleriana (Schweinf.) K.LyeCyperus dichroostachyus A.Rich. SMCyperus dives Del.: SVCyperus laevigatus L.: B1, G5, SM, SVCyperus niveus Retz.: B2, 3b, CEV, G1, 4, 7, LOVCyperus rigidifolius Steud.: LOVCyperus rubicundus VahlCyperus usitatus Burch.Abildgaardia schimperiana (A.Rich.) K.LyeCyperus amauropus Steud.: LOVCyperus squarrosus L.Cyperus impubes Steud.: F2, LOVGRAMINEAEAndropogon chinensis (Nees) Merr.: B3a, LOVAndropogon distachyus L.Aristida adoensis Hochst.: B2, 3a, 3b, CEV, G1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, LOV, RVAristida kenyensis Henr.: B1, 2, 3a, 3b, 3d, CEV, F1, 3, G1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, LOV, RVBrachiaria brizantha (A.Rich.) Stapf: B3aBrachiaria comata StapfBrachiaria semiundulata (A.Rich.) StapfCenchrus ciliaris L.: G3, LOV.Chloris gayana Kunth: B1, 2, 3a, 3b, 3d, CEV, F1, 2, G1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, SMChloris pycnothrix Trin.: B2, 3d; CEV, F2, G1, 3, 6, RV, SM, W1Chloris virgata Sw.: G4Cymbopogon nardus (L.) RendleCymbopogon caesius (Hock. & Am.) Stapf: B3a, 3b, CEV, G6, LOVCymbopogon pospischilii (K.Schum.) C.E.Hubbard: B3a, 3b, CEV, G6, LOVCynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.: B1, G4, 5, RV, SIV, SM, SVCynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst: B2, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, CEV, F1, G1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, LOV, RV, SIV, SM, W1, 2Dactyloctenium aegypticum (L.) Willd.: G4, 7Digitaria abyssinica (A.Rich.) Stapf: B2, 3c, CEV, Gl, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, W1Digitaria diagonalis (Nees) StapfDigitaria velutina (Forsk.) Beauv.: F2, 3, RV, W1Ehrharta erecta Lam.: F2E1eusine indica (L.) Gaertn.: G4Eleusine jaegeri Pilg.Eleusine multiflora A.Rich.: G2Enneapogon schimperanus (A.Rich.) Renv.: LOVEragrostis braunii Schweinf.: B3a, G2Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Lut.: B3a, G1, 3, 6, 7Eragrostis racemosa (Thunb.) Steud.: B3aEragrostis suberba Peyr.: B3a, 3b, 3d, G1,6, LOVEragrostis tenuifolia (A.Rich.) Steud.: G2, 3Eragrostis volkensii Pilg.Harpachne schimperi A.Rich.: B2, 3a, 3b, CEV, G1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, LOVHyparrhenia anamesa W.D.Clayton: B3a, 3b, G1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, LOVHyparrhenia collina (Pilg.) StapfHyparrhenia hirta (L.) Stapf: B3a, 3b, CEV, G1, 2, 4, SMLoudetia kagerensis (K.Schum.) Hutch: B3a, G3Microchloa kunthii Desv.: B3a, 3b, G1, 2, 4Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) Beauv.: F2Panicum atrosanguineum A.Rich.: B3aPanicum maximum Jacq.: B2, 3a, 3b, 3d, CEV, F1, 2, LOV, RVPennisetum clandestinum Chiov.: SIV, SM, SVPennisetum hohenackeri Steud.: CEV, RVPennisetum mezianum Leeke: B3a, 3b, CEV, G1, 3, 7, LOVPennisetum procerum (Stapf) W.D.Clayton: CEV, G2, LOVPennisetum purpureum Schum.Pennisetum sphacelatum (Nees) Th.Dur. & Schinz.: B3a, CEVPennisetum squamulatum Fres.: CEV, LOVPennisetum trachyphyllum Pilg.Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd.) C.E.Hubbard: B1, 3a, 3b, CEV, G1, LOVSetaria orthosticha Herrm.: F3Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.: B3a, 3b, 3c, CEV, F1, G1, 2, 3, 4, SIV, SV, W1Setaria sphacelata (Schum.) Moss: B3a.Setaria verticillata (L.) Beauv.: B3c. CEV, F3, G3, 6, RV, SM, SV, W2.Sporobolus africanus (Poir.) Robyns & Toum.: B1, 2, 3a, 3b, G1, 2, 3, 4, 7, LOV.Sporobolus agrostioides Chiov.: F3.Sporobolus confinis (Steud.) Chiov.: B3a, CEV, G1, 3, 6, 7, LOV, RV.Sporobolus consimilis Fres.: CEVSporobolus festivus A.Rich.Sporobolus flmbriatus (Trin.) Nees: B3a, 3b, CEV, G2, 6, W1Sporobolus ioclados (Trio.) NeesSporobolus pyramidalis Beauv.: B1, 2, 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, CEV, F1, G1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, LOV, RVSporobolus spicatus (Vahl) Kunth.: B1, G4, 5, RV, SM, SVSporobolus stapfianus. Gaud.: LOVStipa dregeana Steud.Themeda triandra Forsk.: B3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, CEV, F3, G1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, LOV, W2Tragus berteronianus Schult.Tricholaena teneriffae (L.f.) Link.: B3b, G6, LOVIRIDACEAEGladiolus psitacinus Hook.f.JUNCACEAEJuncus oxycarpus KunthLILIACEAEAloe lateritia Engl. var. solaiana (Christian) S.Carter: B2, 3a, 3c, 3d, F2, 3, G1, 4, LOV, RVAloe ngongensis Christian: B3a, CEV, F2, 3, LOV, RVAloe rabaiensis RendleAloe secundiflora Engl.: B3a, 3d, G1, LOVAsparagus aethiopicus L.: B3a, 3b, CEVAsparagus africanus Lam.: B3a, 3b, CEVAsparagus buchananii Bak.: B3b, 3dAsparagus falcatus L.: B3a, 3c, CEVAsparagus asparagoides (L.) Wight: B3eBulbine abyssinica A.Rich.Chlorophytum bakeri Poel.: B3eChlorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacq.: G2Gloriosa superba L.: B3c, F2, G7, RVORCHIDACEAECyrtorchis arcuata (Lind1.) Schltr.Habenaria sp.Polystachya stricta Rolfe: F2, 3PALMAEPhoenix reclinata Jacq.POTAMOGETONACEAEPotamogeton richardii SolmsTYPHACEAETypha domingensis L.: SV