Two species of invasive crane flies are damaging pests of turfgrass in the Great Lakes region after their inadvertent introduction and establishment. In New York, where Tipula paludosa Meigen and Tipula oleracea L. (Diptera: Tipulidae) were first detected in 2004, baseline data on the extent of establishment is needed to monitor range expansion, make predictions about pest status, and guide management efforts. The incidence of both species was therefore addressed at two spatial scales to ascertain how widespread they were across the state and across sites of recent local establishment. Based on divergent natural history, T. oleracea was predicted to be more widespread both geographically and locally than T. paludosa. To delimit the current area of occurrence, surveys were conducted from 2004 to 2006. T. paludosa was detected in four counties and T. oleracea in 12 counties. In western New York, T. oleracea was established in more than a six-fold greater area than T. paludosa. T. oleracea was additionally detected on Long Island, shown to be a geographically disjunct area of establishment. To measure local incidence, putting greens and tee boxes were scouted on golf courses. Contrary to predictions, 56–97 and 22–56% of those surfaces were already infested by T. paludosa and T. oleracea, respectively, within one or two seasons after initial detection. Because damage thresholds are relatively high, scouting for the insect, rather than its injury, will promote earlier detection. Given the impact of invasive Tipula across diverse turf habitats, continued range expansion will have serious repercussions for regional turfgrass management.
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Vol. 102 • No. 2