Cross-resistance to two fipronil analogs, butene-fipronil and ethiprole, was detected in fipronil-resistant field populations and a resistant laboratory strain of the planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), although the two analogs have not been used widely in rice-growing areas in China. The results showed that six field populations with 23.8–43.3-fold resistance to fipronil had reached a higher level of cross-resistance to ethiprole (resistance ratio [RR] = 47.1–100.9-fold) and had a minor level of cross-resistance (RR = 3.4–8.1-fold) to butene-fipronil. After 10 generations of selection, the RR to fipronil increased from 7.3-fold to 41.3-fold. At the same time, the insect increased cross-RR to ethiprole from 16.3-fold to 65.6-fold, whereas it had only minor increase in cross-resistance to butene-fipronil from 2.8-fold to 4.0-fold. These results confirmed that fipronil-resistant N. lugens could develop a higher level of cross-resistance to ethiprole, although it still maintained a lower level cross-resistance to butene-fipronil. Our data suggest that ethiprole is not a suitable alternative for controlling N. lugens, once the insect has developed a high level resistance to fipronil. Further investigation is necessary to understand the cross-resistance mechanisms in N. lugens.
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Vol. 104 • No. 4