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1 June 2012 Oxygenated Phosphine Fumigation for Control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Harvested Lettuce
Yong-Biao Liu
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Low temperature regular phosphine fumigations under the normal oxygen level and oxygenated phosphine fumigations under superatmospheric oxygen levels were compared for efficacy against the aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), and effects on postharvest quality of romaine and head lettuce. Low temperature regular phosphine fumigation was effective against the aphid. However, a 3 d treatment with high phosphine concentrations of ≥2,000 ppm was needed for complete control of the aphid. Oxygen greatly increased phosphine toxicity and significantly reduced both treatment time and phosphine concentration for control of N. ribisnigri. At 1,000 ppm phosphine, 72 h regular fumigations at 6°C did not achieve 100% mortality of the aphid. The 1,000 ppm phosphine fumigation under 60% O2 killed all aphids in 30 h. Both a 72 h regular fumigation with 2,200 ppm phosphine and a 48 h oxygenated fumigation with 1,000 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 were tested on romaine and head lettuce at 3°C. Both treatments achieved complete control of N. ribisnigri. However, the 72 h regular fumigation resulted in significantly higher percentages of lettuce with injuries and significantly lower lettuce internal quality scores than the 48 h oxygenated phosphine fumigation. Although the oxygenated phosphine fumigation also caused injuries to some treated lettuce, lettuce quality remained very good and the treatment is not expected to have a significant impact on marketability of the lettuce. This study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation was more effective and less phytotoxic for controlling N. ribisnigri on harvested lettuce than regular phosphine fumigation and is promising for practical use.

© 2012 Entomological Society of America
Yong-Biao Liu "Oxygenated Phosphine Fumigation for Control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Harvested Lettuce," Journal of Economic Entomology 105(3), 810-816, (1 June 2012).
Received: 26 September 2011; Accepted: 1 February 2012; Published: 1 June 2012

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