Laboratory bioassays were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of two formulations of spinetoram, water dispersible granules (WG), and suspension concentrate (SC-NC), against three major stored-grain beetle species, the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae); the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Adults of the above species were exposed on wheat treated with spinetoram at 1 ppm (1 mg/kg of wheat) for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, 40, and 72 h. After this interval, mortality was recorded (immediate mortality) and the surviving individuals were transferred in untreated wheat, where mortality was recorded again 7 d later (delayed mortality). Then, all adults were removed, and the number of progeny production in the untreated substrate was measured 65 d later. From the species tested, R. dominica was by far the most susceptible, given that immediate and delayed mortality for the 72-h exposure interval reached 44 and 97%, respectively. At the same time, progeny production was low, in most of the exposure intervals tested. In contrast, for S. oryzae, delayed mortality was negligible, with the exception of 72 h at the SC-NC formulation. However, in most of the cases examined, progeny production for S. oryzae was high. Finally, adult mortality for T. confusum was extremely low, regardless of the exposure interval and the type of the formulation. Nevertheless, offspring emergence of this species was low. By combining the results of the current study and the data that are available from the literature for short exposures to spinosad, we can conclude that the two ingredients were equally effective against these three stored-grain beetle species.
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Vol. 105 • No. 3