Three-dimensional temporal and spatial distributions of adult Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) at adult densities of 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 adults per kg grain and at 20 ± 1, 25 ± 1, and 30 ± 1°C were determined in 1.5 t bins filled with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with 11.0 ± 0.8,13.0 ± 0.6, and 15.0 ± 0.5% moisture content (wet basis) or corn (Zea mays L.) with 13.0 ± 0.2% moisture content (wet basis). At each of five sampled locations, grain was separated into three 15-kg vertical layers, and adult numbers in each layer were counted. Inside both corn and wheat, adults did not prefer any location in the same layer except at high introduced insect density in wheat. The adults were recovered from any layer of the corn and >12, 65, and 45% of adults were recovered in the bottom layer of the corn at 20, 25, and 30°C; respectively. However, <1% of adults were recovered in the bottom layer of wheat. Numbers of adults correlated with those in adjacent locations in both vertical and horizontal directions, and the temporal continuous property existed in both wheat and corn. Adults had highly clumped distribution at any grain temperature and moisture content. This aggregation behavior decreased with the increase of adult density and redistribution speed. Grain type influenced their redistribution speed, and this resulted in the different redistribution patterns inside wheat and corn bulks. These characterized distribution patterns could be used to develop sampling plans and integrated pest management programs in stored grain bins.
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Vol. 105 • No. 4