We evaluated a combination of noninsecticidal alternatives to control trunk-damaging dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), consisting of novel barrier technologies, used alone or in combination with mating disruption. Barrier formulations evaluated included fibrous barriers of nonwoven ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and nonfibrous barriers of rubberized paint (elastomer) used in building coatings. To examine efficacy of dogwood borer control in orchards, all barrier trials were replicated in field tests, both in combination with mating disruption and without it. Trunk inspections to determine whether mating disruption and barriers effectively reduced actual tree infestation showed pheromone disruption significantly reduced infestation compared with the untreated check, but was not as effective as trunk handgun sprays of chlorpyrifos. EVA trunk barriers were effective in preventing borer infestation compared with untreated trees. The elastomer did not differ from the check or the EVA treatment. There was no interaction between disruption and barrier treatments. Barrier field life and durability was assessed over 2 yr by comparing degradation over time due to weathering and other environmental effects including animal damage. The EVA persisted and remained more intact than the elastomer, but was in need of reapplication after 2 yr. Barriers were also screened for efficacy against voles in small-plot trials in nonorchard locations with known high vole pressure; they were tested either alone, combined with a repellent (thiram), or, in the case of the elastomer only, combined with an abrasive (sand). Only the EVA significantly lowered vole chewing damage relative to the untreated checks.
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Vol. 107 • No. 3