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1 August 2015 Long-Term Residual Efficacy of Spinetoram on Concrete and Steel Surfaces for the Management of Three Stored Product Beetle Species
Thomas N. Vassilakos, Christos G. Athanassiou
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In this study, the residual efficacy of spinetoram on concrete and galvanized steel surfaces was evaluated under fixed laboratory conditions against the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val, and the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.). Spinetoram was applied at the dose rates of 0.025 and 0.1 mg (active ingredient)/cm2, on steel surfaces that were stored in continuous darkness and on concrete surfaces that were stored either in continuous darkness or in 12:12 (L:D) photoperiod. The experimental period for the residual effect of spinetoram was 6 mo. Bioassays were conducted for all types of surfaces and storage conditions at monthly intervals starting from the initial application period (seven bioassays in total). For each bioassay, mortality of the exposed adult beetles was measured after 3 and 7 d of exposure. Among the tested species, T. confusum was the least susceptible, regardless of the surface type, storage conditions, and dose rate. Regarding the bioassays conducted in the surfaces stored in darkness, spinetoram proved very persistent and no reduction in the efficacy was noted throughout the experimental period. Moreover, there were no differences in spinetoram efficacy between the two types of surfaces. Conversely, in light [12:12 (L:D)] conditions spinetoram efficacy was notably reduced after the first month, but remained stable for the rest of the period. The results of this study indicate that spinetoram was persistent with long residual efficacy against major stored grain beetle species on the most common types of surfaces in continuous darkness, while the presence of light reduced its efficacy.

© The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
Thomas N. Vassilakos and Christos G. Athanassiou "Long-Term Residual Efficacy of Spinetoram on Concrete and Steel Surfaces for the Management of Three Stored Product Beetle Species," Journal of Economic Entomology 108(4), 2090-2097, (1 August 2015).
Received: 6 February 2015; Accepted: 31 March 2015; Published: 1 August 2015

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Oryzaephilus surinamensis
residual efficacy
Sitophilus oryzae
surface treatment
Tribolium confusum
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