Lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides used in organic agriculture were tested against Anastatus reduvii and Telenomus podisi, native North American hymenopteran egg parasitoids of the native Euschistus servus Say (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and the invasive Halyomorpha halys Stål. Entrust (spinosad), PyGanic (pyrethrin), Neemix (azadirachtin), and Azera (pyrethrin + azadirachtin) were tested at equivalent field rates of 1×, 0.5×, and 0.1×. Bioassays included insecticide exposure to parasitoids through residue on substrate, parasitized host eggs, and their food source. When exposed to dried residues, Entrust caused 100% mortality at the 0.5× rate to both species; PyGanic, Neemix, and Azera exhibited low toxicity. Exposure of parasitized host eggs to Entrust 1× during the egg stage of parasitoid development reduced parasitoid emergence compared to all other treatments in both species. Anastatus reduvii emergence was also reduced by PyGanic at 0.5× and 1×. Parasitoid emergence from host eggs exposed during the pupal stage was more variable than egg stage exposure; emergence of both species was reduced in 0.5× and 1× rates of PyGanic, and A. reduvii was reduced in the 0.5× rate of Entrust compared to controls. Longevity of emerged parasitoids surviving exposure within host eggs showed that Entrust was more deleterious than Neemix or PyGanic. When A. reduvii was fed insecticide-laced honey, all treatments except Neemix at 0.1× reduced adult longevity compared to the control. These studies demonstrated that insecticides commonly used in organic agriculture can negatively affect two common parasitoids of stink bugs; specifically, negative effects were most pronounced with Entrust, and variable with Neemix and Pyganic.
brown marmorated stink bug