A wide range of invertebrates harbor intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria. Within these endosymbionts, Wolbachia and Cardinium, have been attracting particular attention because these bacteria frequently affect the genetic structure and genetic diversity of their hosts. They cause various reproductive alterations such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis induction, male-killing, and feminization. Through these alterations, they also affect the maternally inherited organelles of their hosts. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can be used for molecular phylogenetic analysis of invertebrates. However, in Wolbachia- or Cardinium-infected invertebrates, phylogenetic trees based on mtDNA are often inconsistent with those based on nuclear DNA. In the present study, we determined the Wolbachia/Cardinium infection status of 45 populations of the mite, Oligonychus castaneae Ehara & Gotoh (Acari: Tetranychidae), collected throughout Japan. Then, we compared phylogenetic trees of O. castaneae based on both the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of mtDNA and the 28S rRNA gene of nuclear DNA to clarify the effects of Wolbachia and/or Cardinium infection. We found 106 Wolbachia-infected individuals and 250 Cardiniuminfected individuals in a total of 450 individuals, indicating an infection rate of 79%. No double-infected individuals were observed. In the 28S tree, almost all populations formed a single group. In the COI tree, O. castaneae formed four separate groups that more closely followed Wolbachia/Cardinium infection than geographic distribution. These results strongly suggest that the endosymbionts affected mitochondrial variation of O. castaneae.
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Vol. 112 • No. 2