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11 December 2018 Use of Ethyl Formate Fumigation to Control Adult Bean Thrips in Navel Oranges
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Shipments of California Navel oranges (Citrus sinensis) (Osbeck)) that are found to be infested with adult bean thrips (Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)) upon arrival in Australia either undergo mandatory fumigation with methyl bromide (MeBr) to kill the thrips or are refused entry. Ethyl formate (EtF) mixed with carbon dioxide (CO₂) is an effective fumigant for control of various arthropods including but not limited to, thrips, aphids, Pacific spider mites, California red scale, and omnivorous leaf rollers. Dose–mortality curves at 5°C, 10°C, and 15°C were developed for control of adult bean thrips using EtF plus CO₂, with 5°C being more effective. In further testing, the efficacy of EtF plus CO₂ against adult bean thrips in Navel oranges and the impact on fruit quality after fumigation followed by 5 wk of storage at 5°C and shelf life at 20°C was determined. Fruit fumigated with 31 g/m3 EtF plus CO at 5°C for 1 h showed no difference in quality compared with untreated control fruit. Ethyl formate plus CO₂ fumigation efficacy was confirmed in a 27.32 m3 sea freight container with eight pallets of packed Navel oranges (load factor 28.69%) and 10,000–15,000 adult bean thrips in each of three replications. Complete control of adult bean thrips was achieved with no negative effects on fruit quality.

© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
V. N. Bikoba, F. Pupin, W. V. Biasi, F. U. Rutaganira, and E. J. Mitcham "Use of Ethyl Formate Fumigation to Control Adult Bean Thrips in Navel Oranges," Journal of Economic Entomology 112(2), 591-596, (11 December 2018).
Received: 2 May 2018; Accepted: 2 November 2018; Published: 11 December 2018

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