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5 January 2019 Identification of Heliothine (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Larvae Intercepted at U.S. Ports of Entry From the New World
Todd M. Gilligan, Paul Z. Goldstein, Alicia E. Timm, Roxanne Farris, Lisa Ledezma, Alexander P. Cunningham
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Abstract

Heliothine larvae, especially early instars, are difficult to identify, and determinations sometimes rely on indirect information such as origin and host data. The introduction of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) into the New World has undermined the reliability of host and origin data to identify intercepted Helicoverpa larvae, and suspect Heliothinae/Helicoverpa larvae intercepted at U.S. ports of entry are now screened for H. armigera and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) using molecular methods. Here, we analyze heliothine larvae intercepted during 2014–2106 to identify nontargets and evaluate morphological characters traditionally used to separate taxa. In total, nine species were identified, with Chloridea virescens (Fabricius) making up the bulk of interception records.The majority of heliothine suspects originate from Mexico and Peru on pigeon pea, chickpea, tomatillo, pea, and corn. Helicoverpa armigera is commonly intercepted from Peru on pea. Chloridea virescens is recorded from every country where interceptions were identified for this study except Guatemala and is found on multiple hosts. Identification issues and specific host/origin associations are discussed in detail.

Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2019. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Todd M. Gilligan, Paul Z. Goldstein, Alicia E. Timm, Roxanne Farris, Lisa Ledezma, and Alexander P. Cunningham "Identification of Heliothine (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Larvae Intercepted at U.S. Ports of Entry From the New World," Journal of Economic Entomology 112(2), 603-615, (5 January 2019). https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy402
Received: 21 September 2018; Accepted: 5 December 2018; Published: 5 January 2019
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KEYWORDS
Chloridea
DNA barcoding
Helicoverpa
Heliothinae
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