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3 January 2019 Life Cycle and Development of Coptoborus ochromactonus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), a pest of balsa
Jessenia Castro, Sarah M. Smith, Anthony I. Cognato, Dolly Lanfranco, Malena Martinez, Marcelino Guachambala
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Abstract

Coptoborus ochromactonus Smith and Cognato is a recently described xyleborine ambrosia beetle pest associated with balsa, Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. Ex Lam.) Urb., in Ecuador. This pest has caused significant loss of cultivated balsa in Ecuador, but little is known of its biology and ecology. Based on examination of multiple gallery systems, this study describes the gallery pattern and life cycle of C. ochromactonus and confirms the generic identity of the symbiotic fungus. Females initiated attack, excavating a gallery perpendicular to the bole. The primary tunnel branched into a secondary tunnel at a mean 3.13 mm.This first secondary tunnel was excavated in a horizontal plane between the phloem and xylem for a mean 18.0 mm. Along its length, two tertiary tunnels were constructed on each side, measuring a mean 26.0 and 20.0 mm, respectively. Conidiophores and conidia of an unidentified Fusarium sp. grew on the tunnel walls and were fed upon by the beetle and her progeny. Coptoborus ochromactonus exhibits sexual dimorphism.The female is 2.6 mm long and possesses a round pronotum, whereas the male is 2.2 mm long and has a quadrate pronotum.The developmental stages last a mean 6, 14, 6, 4 and 30 d for egg, larva, pupa, teneral adult, and adult, respectively, when reared at 25°C. Three larval instars were present, with mean head capsule widths of 0.23, 0.31, and 0.42 mm, respectively. In general, the life cycle of C. ochromactonus is similar to those described for other xyleborine ambrosia beetle species.

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Jessenia Castro, Sarah M. Smith, Anthony I. Cognato, Dolly Lanfranco, Malena Martinez, and Marcelino Guachambala "Life Cycle and Development of Coptoborus ochromactonus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), a pest of balsa," Journal of Economic Entomology 112(2), 729-735, (3 January 2019). https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy403
Received: 13 June 2018; Accepted: 4 December 2018; Published: 3 January 2019
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KEYWORDS
ambrosia beetle
balsa
Scolytidae
Xyleborini
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