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16 February 2019 Sublethal Effects of the Insecticide Pyrifluquinazon on the European Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
James M. Wilson, Troy D. Anderson, Thomas P. Kuhar
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Pyrifluquinazon (PQZ) is an Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Group 9 insecticide that has recently been registered for use in the United States for control of soft-bodied sucking insect pests. Although it has been classified as practically nontoxic to honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), based on acute contact bioassays, additional information on sublethal effects of this insecticide on honey bees is lacking. Using a combination of laboratory assays with video movement tracking software and near-field evaluations of colonies foraging in a high-tunnel experiment, we determined that, when fed PQZ at a concentration of 84 mg active ingredient (ai)/liter (= ppm) in sugar water, a reduction in overall movement by the foraging worker bees was observed. However, when provided with honey reserves in the hive, honey bees rejected the PQZ-treated sugar water. These results indicate that, if ingested at levels of 84 mg ai/liter, PQZ could have a negative effect on honey bee behavior; however, honey bee workers appear to be able to detect the presence of PQZ in their food and reject it.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
James M. Wilson, Troy D. Anderson, and Thomas P. Kuhar "Sublethal Effects of the Insecticide Pyrifluquinazon on the European Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae)," Journal of Economic Entomology 112(3), 1050-1054, (16 February 2019).
Received: 20 September 2018; Accepted: 10 January 2019; Published: 16 February 2019

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honey bee pesticide exposure
qualifying risk
sublethal toxicity
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